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According to Heidegger, Technology in our Current Age controls us and our approach to the world. For instance, the hydroelectric plant is constructed into the current of River Rhine. The hydraulic pressure turns the turbines which intern sets machines in motion which intern produce electricity which is supplied to different places. The current electric plant is not constructed into River Rhine; the river is dammed up into the power station. “The revealing that rules throughout modern technology has the character of a setting-upon, in the sense of a challenging-forth,” 321. The text reveals that the current technology controls our approach to the world.
An illustration that shows that the current technology controls us is that a person who determines felled timber in the woods is now ordered by the industry that is responsible for the production of commercial forests. The individual is made subordinate to the order ability of the system, which requires the paper to deliver it to both the magazine and newspaper industry. The people then demand magazines and newspapers. “He is made subordinate to the order ability of cellulose…,” 323. Also, “…man is challenged more originally than are the energies of nature, i.e., into the process of ordering...,” 323. Therefore, the current technology controls us.
In my daily life, I have been using cellphones to connect to the world. The gadget is light and therefore, portable. As a result, I can easily carry it to anywhere I go. I can easily connect to the world using social media, text messages, and even though calling. An individual can easily communicate with another using social media sites like Facebook, Twitter, WhatsApp, WeChat, Instagram, Google+, Skype, Snapchat, LinkedIn, as well as Skyrock. Besides, phones make it easier to send short messages or to make calls to different people across the globe. Also, one can access news and updates using Google services so long as the phone can access the internet. As a result, an individual gets updates about their surroundings and also communicates with different people across the globe.
How I use phones proves Heidegger’s thesis. According to Heidegger, the cellphones are used to connect people irrespective of the distance, separating them. Besides, cell phones are used to place and receive calls. Since cell phones maintain constant communications globally, it controls human beings.
Technology in our Current Age
These terms and concepts are however applied and interpreted differently by different jurisdictions. In law systems such as United States, the force majeure clauses are accepted by law, determined by the force of the events that lead to the clause. The International Chamber of Commerce interprets force majeure by standard of events that make it practically impossible for parties to continue with the contract.
The main aims of force majeure are to change the common law consequence of dissolution of a contract by inserting a suspense condition into the contract in an attempt to allow the requirement to survive great force, as well as to allow for the artificial termination of the contract until a party opts to terminate by notice.
Article 23 of the International Law Commission states that offenses of an act of a country that do not comply with an universal obligation of that country is prohibited if the specific act is a result of force majeure.
The ICC recommended clauses
The International court’s main function in legal standardizing is mainly influenced by the requirements of international trade that reflect in the practice of its arbitration court. As per the last draft review of preferred model clauses, two clauses are expected or foreseen.
The first clause is a force majeure clause that clearly stipulates the conditions that protect from liability, when performance of a contractual obligation is no longer possible.
The second foreseen clause is the hardship clause which focuses on cases where unpredicted events affect the stability of a contract and that places burden on one partner in a contract.
The allegation mechanism of force majeure in international arbitration.
The international character of ICC arbitration of force majeure is reflected on the number of cases, with various global examples. Once a contractor is pushed to a position where they cannot continue with the contract, they are expected to provide notification of the situation.
- Notification of force majeure status.
A notification from the supplier indicating non-performance or delay is key as it offers essential content critical to the buyer’s operation. Further, buyers should have an identification of the notices when they come to emerge, base an understanding of their opinions, and respond to with substantial understanding of the outcomes of the acts as well as omissions under Uniform Commercial Code (Schalkwyk).
If either party barred from the fulfilling its obligations as required and on a timely basis due to any Force Majeure occurrence shall be responsible for informing the other party(s) without unwarranted delay and arrive at defining reasonable efforts in termination of the Force Majeure. Under such conditions, the parties shall have inter-consultations, with a focus of minimizing all damages, any possible negative implications, as well as costs. Under the ICC jurisdiction, notification is issued when the parties involved have applied a large scope of laws and jurisdictions. A force majeure clause should provide clear description of the principle of force majeure in its specific jurisdiction and the law doctrine of frustration that allow arbitration to take place. Drawings from the effects of notification, the party barred from the fulfilment of its obligations are subject to removal from any Force Majeure cause, replacing, or providing any alternatives to the supply source affected (Schalkwyk). Parties have the opportunity to agree on the law and jurisdiction they best prefer for the ICC International arbitration.
- Preventing notification due to force majeure
Provision of notification follows providing of proof by the contractor that it is beyond possible to work and deliver as per original agreement. Once the proof is tabled, the parties may agree or disagree. In the event of mutual agreement between the parties, then a force majeure clause is executed and all parties part with the clause protection as per their specific jurisdiction. However, in the event where the defendant is expected to provide more proof, then the process moves to court case. The defendant is here expected to provide specific proof on the main aspects of force majeure, irresistibility, and unpredictability, as well as proof of that there was nothing that could have been done to prevent the occurrences.
Proof of force majeure status.
- Reasons for suspension of implementation of the agreement.
For events to be termed as great force or events that lead to force majeure, they must meet underlying factors. One of the main features of force majeure events is externality. This is to mean that the events must not be intentionally triggered by contracting parties. With proof that the defendant had nothing to do with the happening events, then the force majeure clause can apply.
Unpredictability is also a key aspect to consider when tackling a force majeure case. In operating a contract, the contractor is expected to have risk measures to prevent effects of foreseen risks and danger. In the event where the defendant is not able to take measures to curb foreseen disaster, then the law expects them to incur causes and the force majeure clause cannot apply. The defendant must provide proof that he occurrence was unforeseen and unpredictable for the force majeure clause to apply. For instance, if conducting a project in a flood prone area, the defendant would be expected to take measures as latter flood is predictable. Therefore in the case of a flood in such a scenario, the force majeure clause cannot be applicable.
Events leading to force majeure must also be proved to be irresistible. This means that jurisdictions that apply force majeure require proof especially from the contractor that there was nothing that could have been done to prevent the occurrences and their impacts.
- Refrain from payment due to force majeure
The occurrence of force majeure tends to protect parties from incurring any costs in the event of unmanageable situations. The clause however differs depending on the jurisdiction and some clauses are not very clear on how parties share loses in the case of force majeure. The difference in the clause definition leads to different outcome and effects. A non-specific clause is not easy to agree upon and in most cases, force majeure leads to great loses for contracting companies.
When one is awarding a contract, they do so expecting delivery of good results and quality. In the event where either party is not able to deliver because of great forces brought about by natural unavoidable occurrences, then the client is forced to suspend their project and incur costs that were previously not in budget or expected. Project suspension in the event of force majeure is manly inevitable and may go on until when the events leading to the force majeure are contained. Under jurisdiction, parties enjoy the privileges of coming together to discuss the scope of any clause associated with force majeure. Determining aspects of events and occurrences determine the length of the damage. The events are also analyzed under the clause to ensure certainty that the project cannot continue (Firoozmand, 2008). The element of proof rests on the contracting parties as per the force majeure clause. Project suspension also leads to great loses for the contractors as the clause shields the client from any damage costs.
Once proven that the probability of force majeure is high and that the clause is applicable, the parties in the contract undertake underlying options. One option for the parties is to analyze all proof and invoke the force majeure clause. The other option is for one party to invoke the clause and the other is left to appeal the force majeure. Parties can also consider taking measures to curb and manage the effect of the events that may lead to the force majeure before invoking the clause. Once the clause is applied, effects differ as per each jurisdiction. Parties may thus consider the effects before invoking the clause, depending on their jurisdiction.
Again, not all contracts will have the inclusion of the Force Majeure clause, or even the clause might not be enough to encompass external scenarios of the control of any party. In such cases, parties in the contract should prove that a contract is subject to frustration due to unforeseen occurrences. The restraining condition might take its course whereby there is a frustration of a contract. A frustrated contract emerges when there is an absence of a fault of either party or due to an unforeseen occurrence that is out of control of a party, leading to loses for both parties (Firoozmand, 2008). In such a case, the contractual obligations of a party turn out incapable to perform, whereby the frustrating scene makes the terms of a contract drastically different compared to the contemplated cases.
Effects of acceptance of force majeure as a defense in the arbitration procedures.
- Force majeure as a main defense.
Natural occurrences such as droughts, earthquakes, and tsunamis among other related and the phenomena can make business operations impossible in a diversity of aspects. Force majeure invokes some defined rules under the law, based on the provision of relief to individuals affected by such natural occurrences (Schalkwyk). In situations where the performance of a seller turned out as impracticable on a commercial basis, there i
Case: Gideon v. Wainwright 372 U.S. 335, 83S. Ct. 792 (1963)
Facts: Gideon was charged with breaking into a poolroom in a Florida state court. His intent was to carry out a misdemeanor, something that is considered a felony under Florida law (Prentzas, 2009). When he appeared before the state Court, Gideon informed the court that he was poverty-stricken, requesting the Court to appoint him a lawyer, and asserting that he was entitled to representation by counsel. The Court then informed Gideon that according to Florida law, only poor clients charged with capital offenses are allowed to court appointed counsel (Prentzas, 2009). It is here that Gideon proceeded to a jury trial, made an opening declaration, cross-examined the State’s witnesses, and called his individual witnesses. He also refused to give evidence himself and made a closing argument (Prentzas, 2009).
While serving his sentence, Gideon filed an appeal for habeas corpus attacking his conviction and sentence on the basis of the trial court’s rejection to warrant him counsel denied his constitutional rights and rights allowed to him under the Bill of Rights (Prentzas, 2009). The Florida State Supreme Court denied relief. Furthermore, since the issue of an accused person’s constitutional right to an advocate in state court continued to be a controversial subject since Betts v. Brady, the U.S. Supreme Court approved certiorari to again evaluation the issue (Prentzas, 2009).
Issue: The main issue in this particular case was whether or not the 6th Amendment constitutional requirement that poverty-stricken defendants be allowed an attorney is so important and crucial to a just trial that it is made compulsory on the states by the Fourteenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.
Holding: It was held that the right to counsel is an important right essential to a just trial and due process law (Prentzas, 2009).
Rationale/Reasoning: The Bill of Rights that are ‘important and crucial’ to a just assessment are included to the states via the Fourteenth Amendment. This includes the 6th Amendment right to advocate. In Betts v. Brady, 316 U.S. 455 (1963), the court presumed the state’s rejection to assign an attorney was not a breach of the basic doctrine of justness and no due procedure breach took place (Prentzas, 2009).
The Florida Court held the notion that the Betts judgment should actually be canceled, not since it is not an appropriate legislation, but since it is not unswerving with the then obtainable precedent. Additionally, in Powell v. Alabama, 287 U.S. 45 (1932), the court affirmed that the 6th Amendment right to an attorney is a basic right (Prentzas, 2009).
As a consequence, the Court ought to recognize the 6th Amendment right as basic to a just assessment as it needs the states to give an accused a skilled lawyer who is always in attendance at trial.
Concurring Opinion(s) Reasoning: Justice Tom Clark concurred and acknowledged that the 6th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution clearly required appointment of an attorney in ‘all criminal prosecutions’ and that the 14th Amendment of the Constitution requires allocation of an attorney in all prosecutions for capital crimes (Prentzas, 2009). Justice Clark further wraps up that the U.S. Constitution makes no difference between noncapital and capital cases. The 14th Amendment requires due process of law for the lack of freedom just as equally as it does for deprival of life. Therefore, there cannot be a constitutional difference in the value of the process founded simply on the sanction to be obligatory.
Tribalism and racism are key issues in the history of ancient Greece. As such, various philosophers have tried to decipher the two concepts, including Max Weber and Alexander the Great (Lefkaditou 329). Racism, in previous years is not the same as racism today as the definition is quite altered. Also, in ancient Greece, racism was not based on skin color as this variable is attributed to climatic conditions and the general environment. On the tribal basis, some ethnic groups were considered superior than others based on features such as technological study of the universe and advancement in education. Also, Greeks disregarded Africans, and termed them as a primitive race. This paper examines the role of tribalism and racism in ancient Greece.
Tribalism is a more cohesive concept that can be used as a basis of isolation. The isolation cannot be effortlessly traced due to the complexities of the ancient Greek. However, an instance is explained where pure Greeks considered Macedonians as their equals since they both originated from the famous Heralces (Strickland). The recognition earned the Macedonians a chance to take part in the Olympian Games which were exclusive for Hellenists. On the contrary, another instance shows the two Greek states of Sparta and Athens. Even though both were Hellenistic, Sparta had an oligarchy while Athens had a democratic system. These differences led to the Peloponessian War between the States. From the context, tribalism is seen to have caused both positive and negative impacts in ancient Greece.
Geographical disparities was a major issue regarding tribalism in ancient Greece. An instance is the case of Ptolemy and Pericles. The Ptolemy’s citizenship law allowed an individual citizenship if one had a Greek father and a mother from any other nation. On the other hand, Pericle’s law only regarded an individual as a Greek citizen if one had both Greek parents (Gilje). The Ptolemic law led to the dilution of the culture and original Greek language. The disparity became a channel of debate with famous philosophers including Aristotle criticizing the Ptolemy’s law as a betrayal of the originality of Greek citizens. The different views from different sides led to a cultural mishap in ancient Greece.
In addition, ancient Greece victimized other tribes (barbarians) according to their biological and cultural traits. The Greeks considered them as national slaves who had a defect in their cultural system. Aristotle posed a challenge to this view since on the side of the barbarians, they also have a right to regard their culture a superior and refer to the Greeks as backward (Strickland). Another basis used to degrade other cultures is technological and educational advancements. Being the most advanced state, ancient Greece considered other cultures and tribes as inferior and concluded that they needed a ‘master’ to watch over them. Greeks also conflicted with outsiders who were mandated to perform essential functions which conflicted with their belief system.
The ancient Greek definition of racism was upheld during the archaic period. It is slightly different from the modern perspective that came to use in the mid-18th Century. With less regard to skin color, racism was attributed to climatic conditions (Lefkaditou 331). Various groups were framed inferior due to their geographical locations which was considered as having a permanent effect on individuals. However, it was impossible to segregate individuals basing on skin color since there were no slaves who had completely different colors from their masters. For instance, the emperor Septimius Severus of the second century was considered neither black nor white. Hence, race, though in a slightly different perspective, was a key factor used to segregate individuals in the Ancient Greece.
Racism in Ancient Greece manifested itself by Greece superiority. Some tribes in Greece were considered superior while others including the Macedonians and barbarians were taken as inferior. The term ‘barbarian’ was coined to refer to those people who did not speak Greek fluently, poor speakers. Studies depict a solid example of the Greeks referring to Persians as the ‘trousered’ weak individuals who were fond of excessive makeup (Lefkaditou 332). This illustration was used to show the superiority of the Greek people over the Persians. The Greeks also posed foreigners to unfair treatment by subjecting them to their habits. For instance, the cannibalistic eating habits, women standing up to piss and the issue of women being in charge with disregard to men. The doings created rifts among other individuals. Such acts cemented the idea of racism in ancient Greek.
‘The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity,’ a book written by Ben Isaac has a different perspective towards racism in ancient Greece. According to him, protoracism, which is a modification to the present world racism, was present in ancient Greece. The Greeks portrayed xenophorbia which entails the fear of anything foreign as a major factor relating to racism (Rose 332). However, a slight modification to encompass biological characteristics was used to determine racial superiority. In their naivety, the Greeks believed that characteristics obtained from the environmental and geographical location were permanent and could be used to determine the superiority of an individual’s race. Such factors intensified racism in ancient Greece.
Conclusively, tribalism and racism have been instrumental in shaping ancient Greece. Tribalism as a cohesive concept brought various sub states of Greece together. Consequently, it brought disputes among other states. Racism, in ancient Greece is attributed to climatic conditions as opposed to skin color as is the case at present. Racism has been attribute by scholars such as Aristotle and Alexander the Great as a leading factor to rifts between the ‘superior’ Greece race and the ‘inferior’ Barbarian race. Therefore, tribalism and racism were present in the ancient Greece, though formed in the prevalent contexts.
His Early life
Malcolm X was born in Omaha, Nebraska in the 19th of May, 1925 as the fourth born amongst eight children. His father Earl Little, a preacher, was an honest follower of Marcus Garvey, the head of the Black Nationalist. During his early years, his family relocated severally due to racism. The family moved from Omaha, Nebraska after receiving threats from Ku Klux Klan, a group of people who believed in white supremacy. Their house was burned in Michigan while living in an all-white neighborhood.
At six years of age, Malcolm’s father was brutally murdered and the black community blamed the crime on the white people. Out of his four uncles, three were also killed by the white people. Malcolm’s family suffered when work became scarce in the 1930s after the nation fell into Great Depression. They had to live on public welfare. After Malcolm’s mother became mentally ill for about twenty years, he was taken to a foster home and was later forced to live in various boardinghouses and state institutions.
His Education and time in jail
Malcolm X schooled at Mason High School which at that time had a few black students. The students elected him as the class president because of his outstanding performance. In 1939, his English teacher asked him about his future career. His answer was that wanted to become a lawyer. He got discouraged when his teacher told him that it is pointless for a black child to pursue education. As a result, he quit school the preceding year at the age of fifteen and went to live with his stepsister, Ella at Boston.
Malcolm X was given a 10-year prison sentence after being charged with larceny in 1946. He read constantly while in prison in an attempt to cover up for the education years that he lost when he dropped out of high school.
How he became a member of nations of Islam
While in prison, Malcolm’s several siblings who had become members of the National Islam came to visit him. The National Islam was a small association of black Muslims who adopted the Black Nationalist ideology. Malcolm adopted the Nation of Islam culture in 1952 before he was released from jail.
How he found the true Islam
As a freeman, he took a trip to Detroit, Michigan to join hands with the head of the Nation of Islam, Elijah Muhammad. He also traveled to Europe, Africa, and Mecca, Saudi Arabia’s city which was the holiest city of the Islamic religion. Malcolm X found new temples in Philadelphia and Harlem and also became the minister of Temple No. 11 in Boston and Temple No. 7 in Harlem. During these trips, Malcolm changed his perspective of how he used to view white people as evil. He wrote that he had found the rightful meaning of the Islamic religion and he converted his name to El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz. His militant proposals in 1960 earned him many followers and fierce critics. The National Islam number members grew due to Malcolm’s effort from the time he was released in 1952 to 1960.
After his death, commentators criticized and ignored his recent political and spiritual transformation. But after publishing his autobiography, Malcolm X will be remembered for his great contributions to the society.
The Museum of Tolerance is an amazing place to visit. My visit to this museum exceeded my expectations. The museum attendants were friendly and helpful throughout the time that I was there. There is a security check before parking and entering the garage of the museum but given the sensitivity of the topics and the speakers they have at the museum, I'm all for security and protection of the staff, speakers, and visitors.
The museum has three levels each having different themes. The first section describes the American history such as Martin Luther King, Abraham Lincoln & the emancipation proclamation and up to the current US history. This section of the museum was just fine, it only displayed paragraphs explaining each occasion as you go through the hallway. There was nothing interactive.
The main reason that I was there for was the Holocaust exhibit. Before you begin the exhibit, a tour guide gives you a brief general introduction, additional information and ensuring that all your questions were answered. You are also given a passport of a random Jewish child who was there during the Holocaust. You are required to stick your card into their information machines as you go through the exhibit and then go through that specific child’s story. Updates on the child were given during the course of the tour. At the end of the tour, you learned about the fate of your child and whether they survived or died at the hands of the Nazis.
The interactive tour was interesting and mind opening. I really enjoyed it. I went through a hallway that contained exhibits on both sides. It had a long row of pictures that showed the survivors of the Holocaust from different countries and all walks of life including their brief quotations and biographies. Each level lights up in orders as they took you through the World War II story, the rise of Hitler, the Holocaust, and Nazi Germany. The museum has the streets and cafes displays during that time in Germany, as well as the display of the ghetto untidy conditions that the Jews lived in. the tour guides also take you through the extermination camps gates, that have displays of terrible outfits and conditions that the Jews experienced inside the camps. Finally, they walk you down two hallways including that of the children and the able-bodied. This hallway goes straight into a room that you watch the videos and events that took place during the Holocaust. Other exhibits included an archive of more than 50,000 pictures, Simon Wiesenthal's office reactions with original documents, books and furniture, and original letters of Ann Frank. Artifacts from Auschwitz were also there.
The tour was an interesting learning experience. It is hard to accept the fact that these things ever happened. After watching the videos, you go to their machines to insert your child’s card and a brochure that describes that particular child is printed out. This print if for you to keep and read the story of that child and know whether or not they survived the Holocaust. The most interesting part was where actual survivors narrated their stories. For instance, one survivor narrated how her neighbors took a risk by hiding her in the underground and providing her with food and water. This was fascinating. Overall, this museum provides a great learning experience as the tour is very interactive.
The Museum of Tolerance
Art, Music & Film Studies
Montage, or simply editing, is a film production style that employs the use of several unrelated images or shots to create a notion of change in time and space. Sergei Eisenstein is generally considered to be the father of this technique due to his popularization of the method in the production of Soviet films. Eisenstein’s montage is a product of conflict and collision. According to Eisenstein, montage is in no way created by mere linkages of the shots. He views each shot as a precursor of the entire montage. In fact, he considers each shot in montage as a plant or animal cell. Just like what happens inside the cell - collision of molecules and cell division - each shot is a beehive of numerous activities that result into one shot. He defends his principle of conflict and collision through the in-depth analysis of a single shot. One shot in a montage, he says, has its own videographic elements of sound, color, and imagery. These building blocks collide in an apparently unorderly manner to give rise to a single shot.
As opposed to the linkage of shots, montage is the creation of an idea or concept. On the one side, linkage is represented as a weak outcome of collision and conflict taking place in one shot. On the other hand, montage is the strongest possible outcome of active mingling of shots. Eisenstein argues that collisions in montage can have an infinite number of outcomes. The shape of these possibilities is dependent on the building blocks of the individual shot in terms of color, content, and videography.
In October: Ten Days that Shook the World (1927), Sergei Eisenstein brings out the best of montage in action. This film runs for one hour and 40 minutes, and it is punctuated with numerous instances of montage. There is dialogue in the film, and the story is given only through imagery and action. Thus, montage plays a very critical role in the development of the plot.
One particular scene that captures montage is the representation of the Provisional Government’s intermingling of state and religion. The scene begins with a caption “In the Name of God and Country.” This shot is succeeded by another one with words “For God…” after which, a series of images follow in a rather jerky manner. The first seven shots in this scene portray the person of Jesus Christ and the Orthodox Church of Russia. Further shots of Hindu, Buddhist, Taoist, and African Traditional religions follow in quick succession. In this shot, Eisenstein creates the idea that there existed more than one religions in Russia at the time of revolution, but the government saw them as having a common purpose. He further satirizes the integration of religion and politics in the country through this montage.
As seen in the above montage, it is indeed true that Soviet Montage is more than mere linkage of shots. The display of shots do not follow a specific pattern. Rather, each shot is depicted in its special form and has a different background sound corresponding to it. In the montage, the same shot is portrayed in different angles, dimensions, and speed. Eisenstein also actualizes his collision and conflict theory in this scene. He, for instance, repeats the same shot over and over again with different sights and sounds. These shots collide with each other to make a story that every viewer can relate to in the context of Russian Revolution.
Montage in October: Ten Days that Shook the World (1927)
Art, Music & Film Studies
Rome, the eternal city, was one of the most exciting cities I ever visited in Europe. I got captivated from the moment I stepped outside to explore the streets of this city and its ancient architecture. After arriving at Fiumicino Airport, you have 3 options for transportation to the city of Rome, train, taxi or bus. The roman airport taxi is the most convenient option charging 48€ per passenger. I enjoyed staying in a little Airbnb restaurant in Trastevere because it was so close to the Vatican and the Colosseum. The Trastevere environment is breathtaking and everything there is pretty much a walking distance. I highly recommend staying in Trastevere due to its many amazing restaurants.
With only a few days in Rome, I had many things to do and see. In Rome, you have to be patient. You have to survey the touristy things and admire Rome for it is an amazing, ancient city. The city is full of tourists and a people doing touristy things. Rome has a lot of amazing places to visit starting with the Colosseum. Visiting the Colosseum was one of the most amazing things I did while in Rome. It was a walking distance from my little place in Trastevere. I was asked to pay a little fee at the entrance and was given a tour guide who was quite amazing. He was conversant with the Colosseum history and he helped me comprehend what I was seeing and what Rome used to be like in the ancient times. The Colosseum is an ancient stadium where gladiators once engaged in mock fights. It was first inaugurated in the 80 A.D. I highly recommend this place to anyone who is interested in visiting Rome.
The Roman Forum
Just a small distance from the Colosseum is the Roman Forum which is the oldest part of the city. If you want to see wrecked temples, arches and other considerable structures from the ancient world, you have to pay a visit to the Roman Forum. You need to buy a detailed map of the site at the entrance to get the most from your visit.
St. Peter’s Basilica
Another favorite place that I visited in Rome was St. Peter’s Basilica. St. Peter’s Basilica is a highly recommended place if you want to see the Pope. But you must know the times that he is present by purchasing a ticket online. The ticket is free of charge. I enjoyed looking at the attractive artwork in the Basilica and hearing the people pray in Italian language.
The Trevi Fountain
I also happened to visit The Trevi fountain which was made famous by its classic flick ‘’three coins in a fountain’’ legend. The Spanish steps are just a walking distance from the Trevi Fountain. These 154 steps that lead to the Trinita dei Monti are responsible for drawing quite a number of people when the afternoon sun starts to create a warm golden hue over the steps.
I enjoyed staying at one of Rome’s luxuriant public squares, Piazza Nova where I had my portrait drawn as I sat by the fountain. The place was amazing as you could dance or listen to live music.
One of the many reasons why visiting Rome is so great is that it has a lot of delicious meals that you cannot find anywhere else in the country. I enjoyed the unique culinary delights while in Rome and here is a list of the foodstuffs that you must try when you visit the Eternal City; Pizza Bianca also known as “white pizza’’ is a delicious foccacia style pizza bread. Almost all bakeries in Rome have it. Carbonara is another delicious foodstuff that any visitor should try while in Rome. Pizza Roman Style is a thin Roman pizza which has no lip to crust.
My stay in the Rome was quite a wonderful experience. The eternal city, where you can find new sites to admire in each corner, starting with the nice restaurants, cozy and beautiful streets, and the historical sites or even the hidden landmarks that you hardly notice when you look at the map. Here is a little advice for all those who wish to visit The Eternal City, don’t plan your journey in Rome broadly; be flexible and enjoy the rest of your stay in Rome.
My Experience in Rome
Art, Music & Film Studies
Canada is one of the developed nations that struggles with anti-social issues like crime, murder, political manipulation, organized crime, mafia, mobs, street gangs, and civil suits resulting from familial strife. These vices are the dark side of a country that is famous in the global space for its promotion of fairness, charity, and humanity. The presence of a huge drug market and somewhat fragile government structure allows the criminal gangs to operate even in the full glare of police. Corruption existing the municipality and business licensing departments also offer potential grounds for organized gangs to carry out their illicit businesses. These black market undertakings generate a lot of revenue that is not accounted for in the mainstream economics. The first episode of Bad Blood (2017) chronicles the mob activity and the presence of multiple gangs in Montreal, Canada. The gangs move drugs worth millions of dollars into the country and sell them in various black markets. The television series offers important insights into the inner operations of mafia gangs including the familial strain that surrounds the management of mafia business. The film represents the flipside of the “Canadianess” and other stereotypes associated with the Canadian community like being gentle and welcoming. Although the film positively illustrates gender roles, family business, and ethnic tolerance, it is also prove that the assumed national identity of Canada as close to utopia is overtaken by emerging vices like corruption in critical government functions and blatant disobedience to the law.
The protagonist in the film, Vito Rizzuto heads a drug cartel with the help of his right-hand man Declan. He runs his business for a long time with the protection of the police and political bureaucrats who he keeps under control through regular perks. He is once apprehended by the police and extradited to the United States under the premise of killing a certain influential figure in America. He is found guilty and imprisoned in one of the maximum penitentiaries in Colorado, US. While there, his business disintegrates and Declan must rush in to salvage it. He, however, faces resistance from Vito’s elder son Nico who feels entitled to head his father’s business. Declan feels that the young man does not possess what it takes to run such a business and maintain a highly competitive turf. Declan regularly visits his godfather in jail to update him on the progress of the progress of the business and the ensuing strife between him and Nico. Vito is, however, concerned about the safety of his son, and Declan must fight the urge to terminate him for the sake of Vito. Under the disguise of chronic ailment, Vito is released from prison and gets back to his family and business. He and Declan run the business and counter the competitive moves by rival gangs. This rivalry leads to the exponential rise in the number of homicides in the city of Montreal. In the meantime, the police are investigating corruption allegations in the construction industry and the reasons behind this skyrocketing of homicide cases. Declan visits his father in the countryside and largely remains the most mysterious character in the first episode.
Although the film is principally criminal, it has many themes that elucidate the values of the Canadian society. Multiculturalism is in fact a major theme in the series. The drug business community is drawn from a variety of cultures. There are Haitians, Irish, and Italian gang groups operating different turfs in Montreal. Vito Rizzuto himself is an Italian godfather who commands respect among the criminal gangs and the law enforcement alike. Multiethnic coexistence thus allows the growth of the business in Canada. The movie is a representation of what the Canadian Multiculturalism Act of 1968 envisioned. The Act aimed at fostering cultural heritage and create equality in the social, economic, and cultural perspectives. The current multilingual and multiethnic community in Canada is a direct beneficiary of this Act. Vito Rizzuto does not shy from venturing into business due to his ethnic origin. He succeeds in a country dominated by the French and British immigrants. In the same manner, France Charbonneau is a French detective who excels in her career despite her national background. In sum, we can see the ideals of multicultural co-existence taking the center stage in the success of various operations in the movie.
Family values are the core of the Canadian society. There is a clear hierarchical structure and role-play in the Canadian family. Typically, the father is the head of the family and is responsible for providing for his wife and children. As the head of the family, the father takes his children to school and sees them through education. He is also responsible for providing a safe environment for his children. Vito Rizzuto is a typical father figure in Canada. Although not captured in the film, a viewer can discern that Vito took his son Nico to school to study real estate. Nico thus excels in his career due to the contribution of his father. When Vito is taken to a prison in Colorado, he perpetually worries about the safety of his son and business. He is worried that the absence of his leading role as the father would cause his family to crumble. He, therefore, asks Declan to pledge his support for the welfare of Nico while Vito is in prison. The family ideals also come into the spotlight during one of the discussions on business leadership. While Declan possesses the necessary qualities of a leaders, he is not part of the Rizzuto family and so asks the goodwill of this family to lead the business which he ultimately attains.
Children on the other side have the responsibility of looking after their elderly parents. Apparently, Nico does not live up to this task. He does not visit his father in prison although he ought to have done so. He, however, feels that looking at his father’s business at the expense of his career in real estate would prove his loyalty to the Rizzuto family. Declan, on the other side, is a responsible son. After travelling far and wide, he traces his father in the countryside. Paradoxically, he vows to kill him for neglecting him and his sister. Here, Declan father is seen as an irresponsible parent. He gets addicted to drugs and neglects his parental duties of a father. Therefore, the film adopts a dual approach to the issue of family relations.
Gender roles in the Canadian society are well defined. In a heterosexual couple, the woman is usually the second in the family command. Her duties in the family are caring for the children, maintaining the home, and forming a solid support system for the family. The Canadian society like the rest of the developed countries have diversified gender roles. The advancement of civilization has called for the inclusion of the women in the labor force and the growth of the nation. Currently, women are working in different sectors in the economy like banking and academia. In the film, France Charbonneau is a hardworking and inquisitive female detective who is the face of the criminal justice system in Canada. She exemplifies the efforts made by the feminist movement to break the glass ceiling and allow women to excel in the society. Unfortunately, the film depicts some female figures in a negative manner. Rizzuto has two mistresses who continually tear at each other over his favors. Other than this, the film appraises gender roles and gives a true picture of career women.
The bigger picture in the film is that of a society that is filled with rogue elements. Drug dealing is the reason behind a variety of crimes and social evils. In Canada, many cases homicides, rape, and suicide cases are attributed to drug and substance use. With the presence of a booming drug business, the Canadian population is bound to getting into drug and substance abuse and, as indicated by Kai Parnanen and colleagues, the rate of these heinous acts will increase. Being Canadian, according to Will Kymlicka is anchored on gentleness, kindness, charity, and active participation in global affairs. These cultural values are a product of longstanding changes in the social fabric that have majorly been targeted as differentiating Canada from the United States. Kymlicka, however, thinks that these values are a myth. The Canadian national identity is weak at the core. The reality on the ground tells that Canada does not generously give to the international community and it ranks low in the contribution of its army to peace-keeping missions.  Bad Blood (2017) is a depiction of all these myths. Organized crime, street gangs, and compromising the police are represented in film as common occurrences in the US. In as much as Canada tries to distance itself from vices in the American society, the current state of affairs speak otherwise.
Given that Bad Blood (2017) is an adaptation of a book by the same name, it is clear that the national identity of Canada is misrepresented by most movies and documentaries. The 2015 book by Peter Edwards and Antonio Nicaso was a narration of the real events. Both the book and the movie place Montreal as drug gateway to North America. Canada, from these material, is thus not a utopia. It is a contemporary society that not immune to social evils. The business of drugs is not conducted by foreigners. It is an effort of mobsters born and raised
The Representation of Canadian National Identity in Bad Blood (2017)
Art, Music & Film Studies
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