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Common culture comprises of a shared legacy, patriotism, democracy, and standard practices (Liston and Zeichner, 2013). Common culture is purported to play roles in the society that include; improving learning in schools by emphasizing liberal studies that inform learners about their culture, and helping to unite people with a shared history. The position on common culture sends a signal that people need to readjust and start treating each other as members of a similar society.

A centered curriculum is an educational programme that emphasizes on specific learning needs, aspirations, interests, and the culture of an individual learner and groups of learners.  The curriculum is essential because it targets a learner at an individual level, therefore, enabling instructors to improve individual performance, and also strengthens the bond between learners and teachers. Consequently, by identifying the cultural background of learners, a centered curriculum enables teachers to identify the needs of the students with ease (Liston & Zeichner, 2013). The message is on individual differences that call for a curriculum that respects the cultural background of learners and their specific needs, aspirations, and ambitions in life.

Various institutions have curriculums that guide on school activities (Liston & Zeichner, 2013). Dewey is of the opinion that a curriculum should be framed to make children happy, and operate under a schedule that allows them to play with other children. Dewey also supports a curriculum that enables learners to identify and appreciate one another. The message conveyed by Dewey shows that irrespective of diverse cultural backgrounds, learners who are allowed to play and interact with each other are likely to enjoy learning and appreciate each other. 

Educational Disparities and Explanations

 Education disparity is a situation caused by the disparity in school enrolment, unequal distribution of schools, disparity in teachers’ salary, uneven distribution of resources to the school, and unequal allocation of grants to learners. For instance, on enrolment and supply of resources to schools, blacks were denied equal enrolment slots in the American dominated school which were highly supplied with resources (Anderson, 2004). Besides, black and white teachers in the same schools located in most southern states such as South Carolina and Alabama were allocated different salaries, where the latter got better pay. Additionally, Anderson (2004) says that more grants were allocated to white learners as compared to black learners, therefore leading to disparity in Education.

Sources of inequalities in education include; cultural factors, religious beliefs, socioeconomic factors, disability factors and gender factors (Darling-Hammond, 2015). The socioeconomic factor is the most instrumental for educational disparities because of the cost of education and the social and economic differences that exist between whites and other races. Historically, and as supported in the text by Anderson (2004), whites are financially endowed, get more support from the government in the form of educational grants, have the best infrastructure, and are racially viewed as superior. Other races, especially blacks are poor, their society is poorly developed, and are socially, and economically discriminated thereby causing a significant disparity in the acquisition of education between blacks and whites.

A deficit based community is portrayed in “Children in America's Schools” based on East St. Lous as one that lacks the necessary mechanism to efficiently support education, while an asset-based community, as presented in “Four African American women scholars and the re-authoring of Savage Inequalities”, which is a critique of the initial book presents St. Lous as a society that promotes learning and positive reinforcements to education (Kozol, 1991; Farmer-Hinton et al., 2013). A deficit based organization, as presented by Kozol (1991) on visiting East St. Lous, Missouri is a society faced with issues of pollution, flooding, and poverty that bring discomfort to learners, making them unable to fully utilize education. An asset-based society, based on a critique analysis on the finding of Kozol (1991) portrays East St. Lous as a society that has parents, teachers, local churches, and community centers working in unison to promote, aspire and provide social capital used in promoting education and an ambient learning environment (Farmer-Hinton et al., 2013).

Residential Segregation and School Funding

According to Orfileld and Lee (2016), School funding was determined by residential racial disparities. The disparity in funding between schools in racially segregated communities and the white supremacy societies led to a difference in the quality of education. Therefore, the relationship that exists between racial residential segregation and school funding disparities is in the provision of little funds to schools in the racially segregated societies such as the underdeveloped schools in Mississippi, and the high-end schools such as the ones in California. 

Private Citizen and homeowners propelled formation of Ghetto when black citizens moved in mass numbers from their farms to cities without skills to secure better jobs, and later invited their family members to join them in their shack residence. The real estate industry and its agents were also instrumental in forming Ghetto by setting up poorly built houses in clusters and rows for unskilled black casual laborers and promoting the demands of the neighborhood improvements associations for the racial exclusion of blacks from the White Settlement. The local banks and federal government also encouraged the emergence of Ghetto by denying loans to blacks that they could use in setting up businesses and afford better housing, and Jim Crow’s racially inclined laws such as the restrictive covenant that saw blacks segregated to underdeveloped and congested neighborhoods that later became ghettos (Massey & Denton, 1998).  

Equality in funding high and low-poverty school districts lacked because high poverty schools attracted learners from impoverished backgrounds who could only offer little financial assistance to the schools in terms of fee payment and giving back to society. In low poverty school districts, financial aid was provided by the economically endowed parents. Consequently, Equity was not practiced. The low poverty schools, dominated by whites, received more funds from the federal government than the high poverty school districts as the distribution of funds was based on the amount of revenue collected from each District (Orfileld & Lee, 2016).

Parents and teachers introduce children to multicultural books at a very tender age. Some parents begin reading the books to children before they fall asleep, while others use the books, full of illustrations to teach Art to their children. The list below holds some of my most treasured multicultural books for children on Weather.

Reading Level: Pre-reading

Subject and Topic: Social Studies, Weather

 Title: Rain!

Author: Linda Ashman

Summary

Rains start to pour in the city. A little boy is excited while an adult is mesmerized by the rain. As the boy dances in the rain, the old man appears sad. The young boy offers cookies to the old man, but he declines. Later, the old man forgets a hat which the young boy takes to him, and once more offers the old man cookies. The old man is impressed and accepts the cookies.  

The culture of the Main Characters

The young boy loves rain. He is optimistic that the rain brings good fortune and is happy. The old man does not like rain. He does not also accept gifts from strangers unless enticed by other acts like when the boy takes to him a hat.

Reading Level: Kindergarten

Subject and Topic: Social Studies, Weather

 Title: May I Come In?    

 Author: Marsha Diane Arnold

Summary

Thunder and lightning scare Raccoon, making him seek company from neighbors. He first goes to Possum, Quail, and Woodchuck’s residence but is denied entry. Raccoon moves on to Rabbit’s house where he finds accommodation. Later on, Possum, Quail, and Woodchuck seek company and are accommodated by the kind-hearted Rabbit.

The culture of the Main Characters

Rabbit is accommodative. He offers his neighbors room. Raccoon is well mannered. When he is denied homage, he does not complain. Rather, he moves on to the next neighbor.

Reading Level: Grade 1

Subject and Topic: Social Studies, Weather

Title: Tap Tap Boom Boom

 Author: Elizabeth Bluemle

Summary

Changes in weather bring the town people together as they go about their business. Both adults and children rush to the subway station where they get shelter from the hard-hitting rain. The diversity in the gathering at the subway station brings a whole new interaction of the people of the town.

The culture of the Main Characters

The town people shelter at the subway station in adverse weather. The town people never seem to have a problem locating shelter at the subway station when it poured.

Reading Level: Grade 2

Subject and Topic: Social Studies, Weather

 Title: Come On, Rain!

 Author: Karen Hesse

Summary

A community waits patiently for the rain to come. The heat is harsh on plants and the community at large.  Tess appeals to the sky to bring rain. Finally, it pours, and both children, adults, and pets such as Cats and dogs join together in celebration of the downpour.

The culture of the Main Characters

Tess is an optimist young girl, while most of the mentioned jubilant village members, including Tess’ mother, are old people who believe in dance as a sign of joy. Tess believes in the cleansing power of rainfall.

Reading Level: Grade 3

Subject and Topic: Social Studies, Weather

 Title: Singing Down the Rain

 Author: Joy Coley

Summary

Prolonged drought causes hopelessness in a farm community in Brianna’s Town. One day a women shows up and present herself as capable of calling for rain by singing rain songs. The community is skeptical at first, but eventually, children and adults alike, join in and sing for the rain to come.

The culture of the Main Characters

Brianna believes in magic. She is the first one to believe in the woman’s tale.

Conclusively, all the five books on the list are multicultural. For instance, in Rain!, the two characters, the child and the old man hold different views about rain and gifts. Consequently, in May I Come in? , the characters have different moral values. While Rabbit is welcoming, Possum, Quail, and Woodchuck are unwelcoming. Additionally, in Tap Tap Boom Boom, the characters, both of different age,   race and financial endowment, assemble together in the subway station.  Come on, Rain! , the prayer for rain and subsequent downpour bring society comprised of different ages together as the celebrate rain. Lastly, in Singing Down the Rain, it is Brianna who first believes in the magic of the visitor. She is later joined in singing for the rain to come by the community that comprise people of different age. Using Multicultural books in teaching lower level learners is recommendable because they hold moral lessons. Besides, the attractive and exciting pictures and illustrations create a long lasting image in the minds of young readers.

 

 

Keegan (2013) defines Education as a process of imparting and acquiring knowledge through teaching and learning. The earliest form of education was more concentrated on sharing knowledge on how to gather food, provide shelter, and make weapons. Before formal education was invented, people lived in an environment where they competed for survival against other humans, animals, and forces. People developed skills that evolved into educational patterns to help them survive. Education is necessary for society to flourish towards more modernized sensibility. Education systems have undergone many changes throughout history so as accommodate the emerging trends in the daily life. The traditional education systems have been replaced with the modern education systems. Due to the changes in the society, education systems have also to change and fit the new trends. Modern education exhibits differences from the traditional type of education which focused more on the role of a teacher in the classroom. With evolution in the education system, the modern form sees different interaction in the classroom. The paper explore modern education, it features, benefits and its application in Cost Rica.

Features of Modern Education System

The way the teacher and the students relate as well as the relationship among the students is different (Chicosky, 2015). Through such interaction, it encourages a healthy social learning environment that helps in the dynamics learning of students. Administering teaching in the right levels helps the students to estimate their own styles. The teacher needs to be efficient as much as possible so as to recognize the dynamics in the classroom (Molnár, 2015). Also, the teacher should be familiar with each student’s identities and puts them into considerations during the teaching process. This will help the teacher to teach appropriately in accordance with the needs of the students. For example, students who have different learning abilities can be allocated more time to ensure they catch up with fast learning students.

            The goal of the modern education system is to produce learners that are well-rounded who are able to apply the knowledge they have acquired in the classroom in the real-life situations (Fatkullina, Morozkina, & Suleimanova, 2015). In most cases, the modern curricula march the current trends. It ensures that the learners are well adjusted both in the classroom and outside the classroom. Also, teachers training in the modern system of education are different as compared to the traditional forms of education. The current training entails a clear understanding of the students as well as the different learning styles suitable to them; therefore, instructors are aware of the approaches they should use while they are facing a certain group of students. Different learners have different learning styles, and it poses a challenge to the teachers but it is important to accept this diversity so as to maximize the potential of the students which will lead to their success both in the classroom and in real life situations.

Modern Classroom

The modern classroom has a different perspective in that it is no longer space which is filled with formality. Due to modernity, there are innovations. The modern classroom employs various materials that aid in the learning of the students. Moreover, it is the responsibility of the instructor to promote a classroom culture that will enhance the learning of the students. Such a learning environment will make the students feel more comfortable as they learn and this will positively contribute to how they acquire the knowledge. The teacher can incorporate different learning resources that are at disposal like as use of the videos, such learning materials were absent in the old education systems.

Teacher-Student Cooperation

In the modern education system, it ensures that the interaction between the teacher and the students is always meaningful. There is a need to recognize diversity in the classroom and the teacher has to be as efficient as possible. The efficiency of the teacher also depends on the dynamics of the students in the learning environments. In the modern education system, it calls for the teachers that can support the students to fullest (Gadotti, 2010). In the traditional education system, the instructors in most cases were antagonistic to students. The antagonism cases cannot be avoided in modern education as it depends on the individual agencies of persons; they are dominant as they were. The situation has improved in the current world as the modern education system requires the teacher to maintain a healthy connection as it will help students to retain the knowledge they acquire in class. Another feature of the modern education system is that the students are required to learn from each other and not only to depend on the teacher. Through this, the modern education system equips the learners with a value of coordination and cooperation in the learning environment that they will take with them in the real world.

Benefits of Modern Education System

The modern education system provides more opportunities for learners to learn more. Due to the presence of modern technology such as computers, internet, projectors and many more, they have aided the process of learning (Marginson, 2011). It is easy to spread diverse knowledge among the students. Science has done a great deal in exploring different aspects of life. The Internet provides vast knowledge that has no limit. Students have the opportunity to learn what they wish. The role of the teacher is to guide the learners on how to use well the modern technology.

The current education system is based on professionalism (Georgsen, & Zander, 2013). The teachers in the modern education systems, are well learned and this put them in a better place to impart knowledge to students. Children enjoy learning from the professional of their fields. The feature helps to make the learners best in their area of interest and achieve their goals more easily (Blanchenay, & Burns, 2016). Also, the new education system has skill development and vocational education that offers a wide range of opportunity for different students to find something to learn. The system is divided such that there is everything for everyone.

Disadvantages of Modern Education System

In the current education system, education is more confined to schools and colleges. The students acquire knowledge which is more of the facts but less of the arts and this is not mostly applicable in the true world situations. For example, in the primary schools, students learn all the subjects and some of them are not in line with their professions in the future. For example, what will history pay a mathematician or a doctor?  Secondly, the current education system ignores arts that can only be learned in the workshop. For example, most of the women do not know even the fabric they are wearing.

Thirdly, apart from self-education, all education has a question mark. In the current education system, children are sent to tuitions after school. It raises a question on the ability of the school teacher. There is the presence of homework tutorials in every corner of society. Students are not given much time to experiment as the parents and teachers think that learners cannot do anything on their own. This is why students are often told when it is time to do their homework. Also, homework is perceived as time-wasting as it is repetition of class work. The education system does not leave the children with time to educate them. The learners are confined with a specific routine on which they have to follow closely. The normal schedule is to wake up early, have light reading, prepare, go to school, then tuition and finally head home and do homework.

Application of Modern Education System

Most of the countries employ the modern education system; one of them is Costa Rica. Here, education is categorized into four levels; pre-school, primary, secondary and higher. According to the political constitution in Costa Rica, it requires that early education in the pre-school and general basic education is mandatory (Shuchao, Wei, & Yang, 2011). Government finance education at these basic levels. The ministry of education supervises, regulate and adjust the education system. Within the region, the education system of the country is hailed as the best.

As the country believes in sustainability, the leaders believe that the action of today has an impact in the future. Regarding the environment, it means to protect the natural resources so that the country can keep enjoying their benefits (Green, Camilli, & Elmore, 2012). The same approach is adopted in the education system. The country knows the importance of providing the children with a concrete education and therefore, the nation is investing in its children. The country knows that if it wants to have a strong society in the future, then it has to strongly invest in education. The schools in Costa Rica have a simple goal; create a well-educated population that will one day in future provide value to their nation and even global. The education system is meant to equip the students with the skills that will help them prosper and enhance their lives in the rest of humanity.

Due to changes in the world that require new skills, they have led to changes in the education systems that have seen the erosion of the old systems. The modern education system is structured in a way that fits the modern world and equips the learners with the skills and knowledge they require in current life after school. One of the futures that best define the modern education systems is that the relatio