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There are biosocial factors recognized by the biosocial theory include;
- Environment – The environment is essential as it affects genetic expression with adverse environments prevents potential growth of genes while encouraging anti-social gene expression (Schmalleger, 2016).
- Genetics – In biosocial, the study of genes is done to determine the heritability coefficient; the co-efficient that leads to antisocial tendencies is approximately between 0.40 -0.58.
- Neurophysiology – In biosocial, neurophysiology is done to test the correlation between neurophysiology and criminality. It is believed that there are neurotransmitters that have a direct relationship with criminal acts (Schmalleger, 2016). They include; serotonin and dopamine.
- Evolutionary psychology – Naturally, human males are more successful reproductive wise as they can reproduce with little effort compared to males; this fact makes them aggressive and prone to crime making evolutionary psychology an essential factor in biosocial.
- Specific forms – Specific forms is a factor in biosocial in the sense that psychopathic behavior showcases a frequency-dependent and a social unhealthy dependency strategy (Schmalleger, 2016).
From the videos, Sustainable Consumption retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tshstCHwHk and Transforming Organization with Sustainability Management retrieved from http//earth.columbia.edu/video/watch/614 it is clear the world is in dire need of sustainability. There is an ecological imbalance that is destroying the environment. From the videos, it is evident that the world is aware of the destruction of the environment that has been taking place and is ready to take action to preserve nature. The videos are some of the action the world is being strategic at its goals of sustainment with the assistance of the business community.
There is a clear indication that the environment is degraded as a result of people seeking ways of improving their lives. For instance, motor vehicles are an essential part of human living as people need them for the movement of goods in business as well as locomotion. However, the amount of toxic gases released to the environment by motor vehicles is extremely high (Ekstrom, 2015). It is in this mentality that the world is looking into engines that use renewable energy such as electricity. Unfortunately, numerous other human activities have disastrous effects to the environment and require keen assessment as well.
The videos give an impression that there is ample information available on the state of the earth currently. However, as a result of pressures of modern living, people lack personal goodwill to take action in conserving the environment. Soler (2017) states that to have increased interest in sustainability from consumers businesses have to lead by example. The events captured in the videos assert on Corporate Social Responsibility as an essential part of sustainability. Business people have to think beyond making profits and consider the effects their productions activities have on the environment. Notably, businesses and business people are key players in sustainability. According to Hlupic (2014) argues that consumers are likely to follow the advice and actions of their suppliers and retailers. For instance, if business leads the way by showing their customers how to manage their bio-degradable waste, they are likely to follow the instructions. It is therefore of utmost importance to have businesses take a leading role in sustainability. Also, companies should be a target of all stakeholders interested in protecting the environment as they have relevant influence on their consumers. The events on the videos are crucial at creating awareness of the actions to be taken to conserve the environment.
Also, from the videos, one gets the impression of urgency in taking action to conserve the environment immediately. Larsson (2018) states there is adequate, and relevant information on the current environmental degradation and its countermeasures. Therefore, it is time to take action. Fortunately, some organizations have taken active roles in the fight against the destruction of the environment. The result is the global going green campaigns that have attracted the attention of relevant stakeholders. However, there are plenty of strategies that require consideration to ensure the world is on par with regards to the conversation. Notably, the videos are important at conveying a message about sustainability. They exist as a result of the technological advancements of the 21st Century. Therefore, due to this advancement, the sustainability efforts have higher chances of achieving success. The use of the internet to pass on information similar to what the videos achieved has the potential of reaching millions of people from different parts of the world. Additionally, the fact that other people could stream in-live and participate in the events without being physically present at the location is an advancement that requires appreciation. Therefore, technological progress is an essential tool in the sustainability efforts currently underway.
While organizing Meetings Incentives Conferences and Exhibitions (MICE) the first step is introducing the speaker. Also, it is essential to add the theme of the event and state precisely what it all about. In this way, the audience will be reminded of the aim of the event. Notably, the participants of the event are aware of its details; however, a brief reminder is professional as well as friendly. Notably, it is quite important to strike a pleasant note with the audience by being funny. However, to be funny, the speaker has to understand his/her audience which will play a significant role in coming up with relevant jokes. For the speaker to successfully crack jokes with the audience, they require having a witty personality.
Before organizing MICE, there is a need to consider food and beverages that the participants will take during breaks. Refreshments will be made required frequently, so there is a need to have enough supply. While organizing for beverages, there has to be a variety that would suit the different tastes of the audience. To reduce disorganization once the events start, it is important for the speaker to give an outline of the activities and their time. In this way, the audience will follow the activities systematically. Additionally, an overview gives a professional outlook on the events in addition to reducing anxiety in the audience as they are aware of flow of activities.
Active participation by the audience is achieved by allowing them to speak to the group individually. Doing this, the audience members will give their experiences or opinions on the matter. Notably, some of the members might have a vast amount of knowledge or information that might be useful to the rest. Also, it is paramount to allow for the other members to ask questions about the topic the speaker tackled. In this way, there will be a thorough understanding of issues in addition to the development of professional relationships. Periodic breaks are necessary to maintain attention. However, during the breaks, the audience should snack on the available snacks and beverages in addition to participating in some activities that are not associated with the main topic of discussion. Such activities break the monotony and boredom of speeches and make the audience more attentive. Keeping time of the events makes the event interesting for the audience. Since the events attract the audience from different parts of the world through the online portals, it is of utmost importance to keep time.
Moderation is also important in keeping the event organized. Moderation allows for the audience to actively participate in the discussion in an organized manner. Additionally, any new information should be considered a topic for future MICE. In this way, the participants will feel appreciated as their ideas were discussed. More so, the suggestions made by the participants could provide new ideas and strategies of handling the problem at hand. Making a verbal promise of organizing such an event with the ideas brought forward by the audience is essential at attracting participants for future events.
Q1. What does Abram mean exactly with ecology? Use a quote.
According to Abram, ecology is concerned with the relationship between human beings and their environment. The environment is the physical surrounding of a human being. Human beings and nature are related. Technology has made human beings to be obvious of nature, as a result, human beings have emerged above all other things. Nature is the resources of human beings. “The life-world is thus peripherally present in any thought or activity we undertake,” P.36. For example, if we destroy the environment other animals and plants will be affected. Different species of animals and plants become extinct. Human beings can, therefore, shape the world according to the way they want it to be. For instance, they can change the climate of an area which was once dry to be favorable by planting trees.
Q2. Husserl and Merleau-Ponty are explained as “proto-ecologists.” Explain what each thinker contributes to ecology and use two quotes for each thinker.
According to Husserl’s belief, phenomenology could ensure a foundation that is safe for the world and therefore, could be studied. The statement is an odd one depending on the philosophers who declared that people must assume that the world exists up to the time human beings shall have found the meaning of existence itself. Husserl claims that the analysis of the globe stats from its destruction. Such destructions may result in a loss. According to the statement, it suggests that the environment must be protected so that we do not suffer the results of destroying the ecosystem. “It is not a private, but a collective, dimension-the common field of our lives and other lives with which ours are entwined –and yet it is profoundly ambiguous and indeterminate since our experience of this field is always relative to our situation within it,” p. 34. According to Husserl, everything that human beings perceive refers to people as the perceiving subject. For instance, human beings are responsible for the safety of worldly objects and therefore should handle them well to maintain a good relationship. “The earth is thus, for Husserl the secret depth of the life-world,” p.43. Therefore, should be protected.
Merleau-Ponty contributes to ecology on his work. He says that the sensory organs that are in the body of human beings enable them to perceive things. Such organs are modeled by nature to ensure they effectively work. “…if without these eyes, this voice, or these hands I would be unable to see, taste and to touch things, or to be touched by them…,” p.45. To acknowledge life is to recognize the existence of human beings since they are the main animals that influence the ecological system. “…is to acknowledge our existence as one of the earth animals…,” p.47.
Abram, the Spell of the Sensuous
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