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According to the book, moving forward and involving in decolonization concerns acknowledging historical and perpetual problems that affect indigenous women. The text recognizes the way colonization has disrupted as well as negatively affected the identities together with places that indigenous women occupied in their community and culture (Anderson, 2016, p.12). People should try to understand Indigenous women as persons who have suffered a lot but still resilient as they show that they have continuously challenged the humiliation of colonization. Much of that involvement and fight concerns eliminating the portrayals of indigenous women that have been involved in violence as well as marginalization (Anderson, 2016, p.12). According to Anderson, she tried to express the vision she has on the society where everyone has a place, a gift of bringing ass well as a sense of value (2016, p.13). Besides, she argues that putting forward a positive message involving the identity of indigenous women is a complicated process of reconstruction as well as reclamation. The traditional medical wheel diagram (Resist, Reclaim, Act, and Construct diagram), concerns elements that Anderson illustrates as part of the process of identity reconstruction. The process involves, resisting negative definition of human beings, constructing a positive identity and reclaiming Aboriginal tradition (Anderson, 2016, p.15). Pamela George and Dawn Crey suffered since they were indigenous women, a look which eventually leads to their death.
Spatialized justice means the unjust and partial way in which the case of the murder of Pamela George was handled (Razack, 2000, p. 91). The killing of the woman from Saulteaux nation in Regina and conviction that subsequently followed of the two white men who were involved in the execution for manslaughter is what is discussed as "spatialized justice," as it was not fairly done (Razack, 2000, p. 96). According to the author, identity about space was a factor during the trial as the victim was taken to belong to a zone of violence while the accused individuals as foreign to space, therefore, less culpable (Razack, 2000, p. 96). The two white men grew up in popular cities, they were from university, and they had come to enjoy themselves in Stroll (Razack, 2000, p. 95). The author employs an unmapping method to support the arguments, that by denaturing the spaces together with persons in the trial, an individual may expose the exact nature of violence as well as hierarchies that are present in the case (Razack, 2000, p. 96). The influence of colonization and the individual's accountability for the position of somebody in history is as well illustrated in the text above (Razack, 2000, p. 93). The book, therefore, explains how race, indigeneity, class, and gender is playing a role in the case of the murder of Pamela, which contributed to favor of the two male, white, as well as wealthy individuals who were the victims in the case of Pamela.
The men who were convicted with Pamela's manslaughter were given a light sentence (Razack, 2000, p. 96). The article illustrates the gender racial violence and colonization of Aboriginal citizens, which is in progress (Razack, 2000, p. 96). The two white men who went to engage in prostitution are not held accountable after ferocity that takes place in the spaces and on individuals. The text illustrates how the connection between justice, space, and bodies in the regions occupied by racial Others and areas of prostitution are taken as spaces where universal truth is non-operational (Razack, 2000, p. 96). Such violation is constitutionally supported and therefore illustrating why such evil keeps on taking place when conducted by white men and white settler communities (Razack, 2000, p. 96). Stacey experienced spatialized justice in her school when it came to the treatment of the white and the racial Others. The whites were given quick services as compared to other races. People from different racial alignment were harshly judged when they found themselves in a case with a white person. According to the illustration, the white race was taken as superior to others. Besides, the community in the institution were a times gender bias as when dealing with a male and a female student who is involved in a problem; the former is likely to be treated well. Such occurrences were also experienced where other events were conducted in school were they, in a way, discriminated racial others and female gather.
Womanhood; Indigenous Woman
Jackson, the main character is a flat and round character and exhibits internal conflict since he has the desire to save and buy back the regalia from the pawn shop but also wants to use the little he has to take care of his friends and fellow Indians. Despite his generosity, he also steals from his friend. The liquor purchases he makes depict him as a stereotypical homeless man. He also faces man versus man-made environment because he is homeless and drinks too much that he cannot find himself a place to sleep ("What You Pawn I Will Redeem" 1).
The three Aleuts cousins are both flat and round characters, simple and mostly keeping to themselves. The protagonist finds them seated on a bench crying over their boat that left seven years before and which they are still waiting for. They face man versus environment conflict because they are homesick but are stuck. However much they want to live Seattle they cannot return home. Man versus man conflict is also seen when they refuse to sing some songs for Jackson saying they are only for them (Westron, 492).
The bartender is a flat character. He has nothing more to offer to Jackson that the stereotypical bartender actions. He mainly performs the duties expected of him to the extent of denying Jackson the opportunity to stay at the bar and even threatens him. It is typical of him to come at Jackson who blacks out and wakes up with a likely broken nose. The external conflict, in this case, is man versus man conflict and the bartender stands in the way of Jackson finding a place to spend the night even if it means kicking him out after he has spent all his money in the same bar (Dean, 321).
Mary shows signs of being a flat character. She does not show any change in the whole story and being the daughter of the owners of the store chooses to stick to the family ways in terms of employment. She has nothing complex about her character but instead maintains simplicity throughout the narration. The external conflict she faces is man versus man conflict concerning the relationship with Jackson and his proclaimed love for her
The pawnbroker is a round character and very essential in the development of the story. When he chooses to offer Jackson the opportunity to prove that the regalia belonged to his grandmother he gives way to the whole essence of the story. The internal conflict is imminent. To avoid having the cops brought into the issue and also understands that the proof given is valid. He puts into consideration the amount he spent for the regalia and tells Jackson he can win it back if he brought nine hundred and ninety-nine dollars. When Jackson comes back towards the end of the narrative with only five dollars he understands the plight of the Indian man and what he must have been through in order to get the five dollars and he gives him the regalia (Marita & Mónica, 1).
The policeman is both round and flat character. He shows complexity when at first he kicks Jackson before recognizing him then starts being nice. He appears as both a good and a bad guy. He shows man versus society conflict because it is expected of him as a police officer to detain troublemakers or those in need like Jackson but instead of taking him to detox he chooses to give him money and sets him on his way (Kidd & Emanuele, 479).
"What You Pawn I Will Redeem."
A Different Mirror is a compilation of works done by Ronald Takaki that shows the plight of minorities in America. The work focuses on social issues such as employment, education, and health of the minority in relation to the majority. America is a multicultural country, a factor that has resulted in a society that is culturally rich. There have been struggles as the diversity in cultures led to clashes that resulted in the minorities facing challenges before settling into normality. Takaki handles the challenges in his work while appreciating the progress the American society has made to date.
The decisions leading to the challenges the minority faced were primarily made by the majority. The minority posed a threat according to the majority’s perspective as there was a general consensus that they were a burden to the state. The fact that the minorities were immigrants who occupied spaces and territories for instance that was American. The majority therefore made decisions that favored them in a bid to protect their interests; however, in the process, the decisions had adverse effects on the lives of the minority. There are other decisions according to Takaki that have had positive impacts on the minorities; consequently, these decisions resulted from human rights activities.
Resulting from some of the decisions there has been increased number of immigrants in the country. Increased number of immigrants increases the work force which results to more productive members of the society. America also provides an environment through which numerous people have achieved their goals through the extensive educational programs provided. Currently, America protects the rights of all individuals through the amendments made in the constitution which has direct correlation with some of the decisions made during Takaki’s time.
From the Takaki’s quote, America is a multicultural society where people from different cultural backgrounds associate harmoniously. The resulting communities have benefitted from the diversity of their society; have common grounds. Strategically, American society has adapted to the differences of cultures and developed a unique culture that is American. The border towns that mostly consists minority are the representation of the American society. Takaki however, acknowledges the fact that there have been struggles as the individuals from different cultural backgrounds find a balance through which they operate. The struggles have laid the foundations of the beauty of the American society.
In his work Takaki, puts the term struggle in quotes to indicate the importance of the struggle as well as the relativity of the term in context with the subject of the work. In this instance, Takaki focused on the struggles the minority faced to realize the American dream. Takaki create a situation where the struggle is implied to be a psychological issue. Due to the fact that the minorities are essentially different, there are higher chances of clashes which are based on the fear of the unknown. The struggle if it exists is psychological with psychological changes required to improve the society.
There are physical challenges and barriers needed to be conquered by the minority to have a normal society. The challenges include accepting the differences especially related to religion, politics, and family. Socially, Takaki suggests that American society is based on the psychological behavior of the members. Regardless of the cultural differences and the challenges arising from the diversity, there is a critical need for the society to operate in unison. To achieve this Takaki suggests a complete overhaul of the peoples’ perspective towards the society. To guard their interests the minority must change their mindset and accept the benefits that come with being American citizens.
Analysis of A Different Mirror by Ronald Takaki
John Reed was a journalist whose anti-war argument in his work, ‘The Trader’s War,’ focuses on the financial greed that a majority of the cast portrayed in the face of war. The countries that sponsored the war or had huge stakes in it had financial interests. Countries such as England and France were getting involved in the war indirectly to the war by allowing a Diplomatic Conference at Algeciras to take place (Reed 43). Reed’s argument follows the notion that the war was primarily started so that super powers of the time could make financial gains.
Throughout the war, there were some countries that fought for courses and agendas in which they had little interest. Such countries were coerced into active battle as a result of the relations they had with the fighting parties. The issue of allies according to Reed (56) led to victims of the war who were oblivious to the real causes of the war. The atrocities of war were not a priority when the war was in its initial stages. Additionally, active battle was just the means to an end as the war had been in existence for decades.
Reed uses several journalistic descriptions that assist his audience to have a deeper understanding of his anti-war convictions. The tone of his work is set to provoke critical thought of the issues that led to war. History suggests that Germany is country that came to existence traders and business organizations organized themselves into a group that took over territories through military warfare. It is in this sense that Reed (62) states that at the time a majority of German business people assumed there was no other to way to make financial development apart from using force.
The phrase, ‘peace-lovers’ is used to describe parties such as England and France. As earlier stated these two countries were indirectly involved in the war at the beginning. They disguised as peace lovers; however, they succeeded in throwing the world off balance as their allies were in a confused state (Reed 70). Reed uses the phrase to describe how the countries provided the environment required to incite a world war. As the financial beneficiaries of the war the countries worked at ensuring the war took place irrespective of what would happen to their allies and colonies.
There are scenes in Reed’s reportage that provoke a reader’s negative view of warfare in general. One of such scenes is when a country by the name of Germany was formed strictly as a result of warfare. In such a case, there had to be thousands of people who lost their lives while massive displacement of others occurred. For an individual who understands the consequences of war, celebrating that a country was born from such an action is quite disheartening. Reed allows the readers to make their conclusions from the reading as he does not go into detail; he however, tentatively touches on the point he is trying to make.
Another scene described by Reed is in the interests of Germans, English and the French. During the time the financial systems depended on the financial capabilities of the country. However, for Germany, French, and England capitalism was the financial system as the country were advanced economically. Based on this concept, Reed describes the countries as capitalists whose interests were to make more money that their rival and sustain their economies. Countries such as Germany on the other hand were not shy in openly announcing their interest in the war; Germany openly announced to the world that it would make huge financial gains from the war.
Before Germany was formed, England and France had grabbed a majority of the most viable territories throughout the world (Reed 86). The territories were valuable as they provided raw materials that were of utmost importance to the host country. The selfishness that these countries operated on is sufficient to provoke a negative reaction towards war in general. Reed creates a situation where an individual takes up on his anti-war arguments through understanding how the parties involved worked to meet their interests.
The World War I was primarily started as a result of the financial stakes that a majority of countries had. For instance, Germany understood that the English were making huge profits from being monopolies of the Indian trade (Reed 89). The Indian route opened Asia to England and Germany were envious; therefore, to raise tension Germany made it seem like they threatened the trade route. In the process the English would protect their route which would inadvertently destroy trade in the territory. For a reader, basing a whole World War on selfish trade interests is an issue that has increases the atrocities of war and thus provokes negative feelings. Throughout the reading Reed, describes peace-loving in a way that leads to a negative interpretation. The description therefore, means the opposite or the described parties were not peaceful; this is a negative aspect of the parties involved in war.
Analysis of The Trader’s War by John Reed
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