Economic inequality between whites and blacks present one of the most discussed issues over the years. The persistent debate is because economic inequality is a trend that has been in play even before independence. The government has made efforts in trying to bridge the gap between the upper-class whites and the low and middle-class blacks. However, there has been disagreement in a number of issues including ways of effectively reducing the economic gap without causing an economic crisis and causes of increasing economic disparity despite the rise in the income of blacks. Robert Maduca holds the view that racial discrimination between whites and blacks is the main cause of economic inequality between the two races. Although there are several factors that cause Economic inequality, Racism, as argued by Manduca, is more convincing. Therefore, racism as the cause of economic inequality is the main thesis of this article.

One appealing argument of this article is how the disparity in income distribution increase economic inequality among the citizens in the US. Income distribution describes the organization in rank between whites and blacks. At present, and for a very long time, blacks make most of the low and middle class while the whites occupy the upper class. Manduca argues that when the national income is distributed, the upper class receives the lions share while the rest goes to the other classes. Manduca also examined that only Government can control the income distribution by increasing education supply to the blacks and mitigating laws that call for racial representation at the places of work.

Parental wealth is another factor used by Maduca in trying to explain economic inequality. He relates parental wealth back to social classes where he argues that the children of the whites receive more wealth from their parents than those from the blacks. In this regard, more economic stability and gain are experienced by the children of the whites than those of the blacks. As they inherit the wealth, they are structurally placed at high levels of employment hence earn more. This builds the economic disparity gap even further. He further explains that since whites occupy the high ranks in the labor market, the hiring of top employees is at times racial based. For instance, Maduca says that when blacks apply for jobs, the probability of being called for interviews is less both for low paying and better-paying jobs that need more qualifications. Furthermore, he says that when blacks get high paying jobs, they are at times earn less than their white counterparts.

Another argument presented in the article is on racial stratification. This goes down to family income and family structure. Bloom argues that difference in the structure of whites and black families is a major cause for the continued economic disparity (57). His argument supplements Maduca’s findings that outline most families of the whites to having educated members who have well-paying jobs. Black families, on the other hand, are less educated and few of them get employed on the high paying jobs. Moreover, most families are run by single parents. Dropout rates for black children are also high. Consequently, economies of returns on employment for blacks is lower than that of whites. This projection has the effect of tilting the economy of the United States towards the rich.

Another argument presented for racism as a cause of economic inequality is that shown by the gap that exists between those occupying the topmost levels of earning and those at the bottom. The people who own the means of production are mostly whites who tend to hire fellow whites or family members. However, due to government intervention, they are encouraged to present a mixed race workforce. Therefore, they hire blacks but pay them a meager salary.  The outcome of such an arrangement leads to a reduction in the employment gap. However, the rate of income disparity increases because the blacks are majorly employed to serve on the low-level ranks. This leads to a trend whereby the middle-class income is low while that of the class is very high.

Lastly, Maduca argues that other than racism, larger shifts in the economy have attributed to economic inequality. He points out that the emergence of technologies that require skills in operations further led to an increase in the economic gap between whites and blacks. He says that during the industrial revolution, and in recent times, more whites had college and university degrees as compared to blacks. Therefore, to an extent, it led to the current employment structure. Conclusively, Maduca argues that despite various strides by the blacks in scaling the heights, the economic disparity gap still exists and asserts that one way of trying to bridge this gap would be through viewing the disparity as caused by the general population rather than individual families or groups of people. However, Maduca has been criticized for ignoring key factors such as the impact of recovery from an economic crisis on the very rich who are majorly whites as a cause of income disparity in the US.