Occupational identity is the societal influences that an individual can adjust, reject or respond to depending on their personal inclinations and talents (Huws, 2012). The production of occupational identity happens when there is intersection of division of labor and social structures that includes caste and class (Huws, 2012). The mass production in companies devalues occupational identity; as a result, workers become disposable and replaceable. For instance, an individual endures or digests the contradictions that results during an interaction processing that is more or less successful between societal and personal demands (Huws, 2012). The knowledge economy is a program of consumption and production that depends on intellectual capital. Typically, knowledge based economy represents economic activities in first world countries. The time of balancing building workplace solidarity, tension arises because of shared occupational identity as worker’s skills and knowledge increases (Huws, 2012). Besides, tension emerges as the ability of capital to balance a requirement for skilled labor with an aim to increase mechanized toil by offering work where possible.

According to Huws, capitalism has taken over all life aspects from culture, personal relations, art, and social interactions (2012). The rapidly transforming technology enhances interactions with families, colleagues at work, and friends. For instance, such interactions depends on channels intended to capitalize on each word (Huws, 2012). The automation of work and labor is increasing. Therefore, the information and products can easily cross national borders increasing efficiency and reducing cost as well (Huws, 2012). The text illustrates the subtle commodification of daily life that challenges individuals to reconsider the contradictory nature of exploitation of labor under the recent law of capitalist.

In occupational identity, the working towards future, industry, productivity are forefront. “…one of my central themes was capitalism’s extraordinary ability to survive the crises that periodically threaten to destroy it by generating new commodities.” (Huws, 2012). During early adulthood and adolescence, much maturation depends on constructing an occupational identity that enhances the achievement of meaningful work. Disappointingly, the values associated with such stages are identified only with certain communities (Huws, 2012). Productivity therefore varies in different culture. For instance, levels of productivity in some areas are more than others creating disparities in employments.

The spatial of labor is the variation of different stages of economic activity worldwide resulting into specialization of work in different places (Huws, 2012). The world city that is agglomerated with high points of intermediary economy are associated with Global Property Network Standards (GPNS) is tempting to concentrate in (Huws, 2012). However, there can be low productivity, low wages, and poor working conditions. According to Huws, one of the current ironical situation is that the footloose individuals or those with deep ancestral roots in the area in which they work may do the most footloose works (2012). For instance, there is increasing number of individuals who are immobile at any time e so that they can serve the rising virtual and physical nobilities of other people (Huws, 2012). Besides, the diurnal rhythms of life that are old are interrupted by needs to respond to worldwide demands as most people are expecting everything to be normal. The normalization process is increased by existence of growing numbers in each city of those who are spatial but not temporal residents. “…the traditional diurnal rhythms of life are disrupted by requirements to respond to global demands...” (Huws, 2012).

The staff across the globe depends on fixed labor. Such form of labor is crucial during production as it is constantly available (Huws, 2012). Without fixed labor, the production may not occur, and if it takes placer, it will be at a slower rate. As a result, there is reduced quantity of goods produced. The total GDP also reduces, decreasing the rate at which economy grows (Huws, 2012). The employment opportunities reduces. Concurrently, some businesses closes reducing job opportunities. The welfare of the citizens is therefore negatively impacted. During production, temporal division of labor can be summed to more familiar spatial divisions of labor incorporated in production (Huws, 2012). The in-between characters of the majority’s work experience of cybertariat are characters of with qualities fixedness and foot looseness who are in continuous tense interaction with one another (Huws, 2012). The physical realities disturbs virtual doings while virtual rooted accomplishments interrupt the rooted real time activities.

A push factor is a distress that drives an individual away from a certain region while, a pull factor is what is concerning the nation to which one migrates. Generally, a benefit attracts people to a given region (Golash-Boza & Menjivar, 2012). Therefore, a region which conducive factors should have large population. Contrarily, the nations or regions where individuals are migrating from is believed to contain fewer benefits (Golash-Boza & Menjivar, 2012). Such places may have less population and business activities and as a result, stagnates in development. The push and pull factors are mostly taken as the north and south poles of a magnet. For instance, an individual can be attracted towards a place for a different reason which is different from the one another person will be leaving the region the other person is coming to, and moving to the area where the other individual has migrated (Golash-Boza & Menjivar, 2012). The push factors are associated with few job opportunities, political fear or harassment, religious persecution, and poverty. Besides, high levels of crime, natural disaster, famine or drought, inadequate facilities and services constitutes push factors. While, the pull factors include good infrastructure, religious freedom, political stability, peaceful environment, and better living standard (Golash-Boza & Menjivar, 2012). In addition, excitement or new discoveries, family links, less crime, better policing, varied employment opportunities, and good infrastructure and examples of pull factors. Furthermore, better climate, more fertile land, good health care, lower risks from natural calamities, and chance for greater wealth also push factors (Golash-Boza & Menjivar, 2012). In the United States, sociological evidence that shows the need for rights to mobility in the present state of globalized economy is the flexible movement of goods and services. “…migrants travel most frequently to fulfil their human rights to freedom from persecution, to an adequate standard of living, and to be with their families…”  (Golash-Boza & Menjivar, 2012). The above arguments defends the quoted words.

Immigration is living permanently in a foreign nation. There is eventual loss of cultural uniqueness for immigrants in USA in Latino and African Americans (Golash-Boza & Menjivar, 2012). The rights of migrant workers are violated together with their families as they are blocked from access to social services, to education and shelter, and to housing rights (Golash-Boza & Menjivar, 2012). Besides, some Latino and African Americans are denied the right to work and earn honorable incomes and therefore cannot meet some of their basic needs. ‘…On the receiving end, immigration policies have profound effects on the rights of migrant workers and their families, including blocked access to social services, to housing rights, to education and health, to the right to work and earn dignified wages to meet basic needs of food and shelter…”  (Golash-Boza & Menjivar, 2012). Nowadays, migrant rights to move and associate with family members is almost impossible.  For instance, the laws in the receiving nation makes it almost impossible for a family member to pay the migrant a visit, also, because of the high cost of transport, a migrant may find it difficult to unit with the family member. “This situation is prevalent among…Central American women in the USA…” (Golash-Boza & Menjivar, 2012). The families of such individuals can break up, affecting the lives of the children as well as the spouse. Besides, the family may miss the affection from the member of the family. Such cases may result to increased street children in the mother country because of divorce, which may take place between the parents. “We see instances of this situation among Latin American-origin immigrants in the USA, as well as among African immigrants…” (Golash-Boza & Menjivar, 2012). Therefore, the federal state should consider loosening the immigration rules to favor the families of African and Latino American immigrants.

Post-Fordism is the theory that illustrates why current firms should the mass production methods that Henry Ford pioneered to small flexible industrialized units (Wigfield, 2017). “The idea of Fordism initiated by Henry Ford, who was an American industrialist and theforefather of the Ford Motor Company, he also sponsored the improvement of the assembly line system of mass production” (Wigfield, 2017). The Post-Fordism is associated with the application of service industry and new technology and therefore globalizing financial markets and enhances communication, improving trade. In the Post-Fordism model, the production is tailored according to the needs of the customer