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The author attempts to analyze and find answers to the question of whether modernization and the rise in technology and rationalization have changed the way love is understood and applied in today’s society. By providing contrasting perceptions of different ideas surrounding love, marriage, and emotions in general. Has love changed or has the society changed thereby altering how they perceived love.

The author’s main argument is that the forces of the technology of choice, science and political values have played major and profound change in the difference in how we see the love and the way we experience it. The author describes various concepts that have developed or rather changed face over the years. The advancement of love into a science and the attempts to explain love and emotions in scientific terms is an idea developed in the article. Technology also is highlighted as a factor that has played a major role in the present ideas on the subject. Dating and marriage now can take place according to the choice of technology that an individual uses to find love. Modern issues such as the drive for equality and feminism also arise in the text.

The issues addressed by the author point to major influence by science, sociology, and technology, the major themes of the course. The author conveys the arguments in an effective way. A weakness of the article, on the other hand, is the attempt by the author to prove that a rational individual cannot experience enchanted love. Despite the facts presented, the individual’s personal opinions rather than the essence of rationale undermines enchanted love.

The article shows strength in the arguments surrounding the changing roles of the society, religion, and technology. The writer, without doubt, achieves the aim of providing convincing arguments on these concepts. Has the disenchantment and rationalization of love had a considerable effect on the modern perception of love? What is the connection between the ironic structure of love as explained by the writer and the change in sentiments and rationale about love experienced today?

The article’s tips on email etiquette are helpful in the sense that they create professionalism. Through the provided tips, professionals will be confidence in showcasing their professionalism in how the communicate through emails. Additionally, the advices in the article target professions and thus are tailored for professionals and thus suitable. Notably, Smith & Sugar (2015) asserts the importance of email etiquette as it reduces conflicts in the workplace through the encouragement of harmonious relationships. In the end, the tips are essential in office communication which is paramount for a business to take place.

However, the sheer fact that the tips place importance on professionalism might create tension especially to individuals who are still new in the workplace. Irrespective of providing advantages for professionals, the tips take out the fun of people who want to be professional and casual at the same time in their emails (Whitmore, 2016). For individuals who have worked together for years and have started a business, for instance, their emails would be professional and yet casual at the same time. In this situation, the tips might reduce the relaxed mood that exists between such individuals.

The tip of using a professional email address might lead to a lack of personal interest in the email. Interestingly, Smith & Sugar (2016) assert on the importance of using a professional email address to create professionalism. However, the use of a professional address might lead to detachment of the user from the mail and thus write in a way that would adversely affect the organization. Therefore, allowing the employees to use a personal email address would increase accountability and a sense of responsibility among the users. The use of a professional address accommodates professional emails only, therefore, for personal, professional emails, the users might lack confidence in their writing as they are unsure of how to handle the situation. In the process, the user might become inefficient in conveying the intended message; which has detrimental effects if it was an important message that needed sending. Fortunately, regardless of the intention of the user, emails are traced easily and this aspect that has significantly reduced the use of professional email addresses for ill intentions.

Some of the tips that will I will adopt into my computer-mediated communication are proofreading. According to Smith & Sugar (2015), proofreading ensures the emails are free of grammatical errors that reduce their sense of professionalism. Because a majority of people fail to proofread their work, I would guarantee all my emails are corrected to reduce any grammatical errors that reduce their professionalism. Additionally, I would ensure I have not typed the receiver's address before I have proofread to prevent sending it by mistake. In the process, my emails would be professional with zero grammatical errors as well as have relevant content as they would be a result of thorough reading and reading. I would also be extremely cautious with the ‘reply all’ button to reduce chances of sending my emails to irrelevant people. Through this way, my emails would be professional as the tips would assist my communication and create a relaxed way of communicating. Also, the tips from the article would ensure I deliver with utmost professionalism that is essential in any professional setting.

Parents and Immunization of Children

World Health Organization (WHO) describes vaccine hesitancy as the refusal or reluctance to accept vaccine despite access and availability of vaccines. Vaccine hesitancy is one of the global health threats (Reich, 2018). Reich (2018) asserts that statistics released by WHO over the past years reveals that immunization prevents over two million deaths annually. However, concerns emerge on the potential reversal of the gains made because of the increase in the rate of vaccine hesitancy. In the United States, for example, measles was considered eradicated in 2000 (Navin, 2015). In 2019, measle outbreaks emerged across states in the United States (McDonald et al., 2019). McDonald et al. (2019) explain that the reason for the increase in the explosion of preventable diseases is because of parents’ refusal to vaccinate their children. This paper discusses some of the reasons why parents refuse to immunize their children against preventable diseases.

Most parents take actions based on safety concerns for their children. There is a lot of content on the internet that argues against vaccines using previous negative experiences of some parents (Dube et al., 2016). When an immunization process does not follow guidelines, such as providing a prescribed amount of vaccine to a child according to their age, then complications are likely to occur. Dube et al. (2016) explain that when medical practitioners omit some guidelines on immunization and children have adverse effects, sometimes parents of such children share their experiences in online platforms. Those experiences convince other parents against immunizing their children on safety reasons. Safety of children is a factor that parents consider when making decisions for their children.

Religious belief is another reason that some parents use to refuse to immunize their children. In the United States, there are only four states that refuse to offer vaccination exemptions based on religious beliefs (Reich, 2018). The remaining states allow parents to decline immunization of their children if it goes against their religious beliefs. Reich (2018) explains that decisions made based on religious beliefs are difficult to dissuade because of the moral ethics and core religious beliefs of a parent as opposed to the ignorance of a parent. When parents refuse to immunize their children because of religious beliefs, their refusal is to all types of vaccination.

Some parents would want additional education on a vaccine before they accept immunization of their children. The reason for additional information is to make an informed-decision when fully aware of the benefits and associated risks (Navin, 2015). Studies have indicated that a third of parents in the United States expressed concern about lacking enough information on various immunization procedures (McDonald et al., 2018). According to McDonald et al. (2018), some parents explained in most studies conducted on vaccine hesitancy that they could not understand the explanations that their children’s doctors provided on immunization. McDonald et al. (2018) add that some of the studies revealed a desire by parents on detailed information on vaccination in a non-biased and accurate manner. Lack of additional education is a reason for refusal by some parents to immunize their children.

In conclusion, vaccine hesitancy is increasingly becoming a global health threat. It is not the lack of vaccines that is of concern, but the refusal by parents to take their children for immunization. Several reasons drive parents to refuse vaccination of their children, but the ones discussed in this paper are safety concerns, religious beliefs, and need for additional education on immunization. These reasons capture the mentality of parents who refuse to immunize their children. It is imperative that solutions to these reasons are developed to avert the threat of a reversal of the gains made in the health sector on preventable diseases.

Joy Buolamwini speaks about algorithmic bias. Algorithmic bias happens when the computer or webcam acts in a way that exhibits the general values of the individuals involved in the collection of data. The writer lists valid points on the extent of this bias in various fields such as the results from search engines, social media, and racial profiling. The speaker states that this bias reflects racism and various biases in the society. Algorithmic bias just like human bias also creates unfairness and inequality. The speaker explains why this is because of the problem she illustrates. It occurs that it is difficult for a webcam to recognize the face of the person unless with a white mask on. The speaker has a darker skin is not recognized by the webcam and this forces her to borrow a friends face to use in an assignment.

A person with lighter skin is easily identified. It is true that every face that deviates a little from the general characteristics of the algorithm used to train the algorithms. The fact that the computers only detect the speakers face only when she has on the white mask really portrays a problem that requires solving. People with darker skins appear to be undetectable on the computers facial recognition webcams. In attempting to identify the various circumstances of bias, we need to discover the instances where the bias occurs so that individuals can identify and know what to be watchful for and also the need to come up with a tool that can be used by developers to check for bias in their designed system. On this issue, solutions need to be found to develop a system that operates well for diverse demographic units. A system that is trained and tested on lighter skinned people cannot be relied upon to be used in a place where the faces of the people are darker. This system becomes unsuitable for this population. This is on sectors like facial recognition software in crime fighting among other sectors.

During his presidential campaigns, Donald Trump mentioned that he wished to restore America’s former glory. Based on his manifesto, this would partly be achieved by regulating immigrants that enter the country, especially from Southern America. In Trump's perspective, a physical barrier would serve to halt uncontrolled entry into America via the Southern Border.

Additionally, it would alleviate the suffering that immigrants undergo while crossing the Desert of Mexico en route to the US. When Trump occupied the White House, he began the process of actualizing his dream for the barrier. Thus, he lobbied for support from different groups in building the wall. Currently, the idea has received support and backlash with equal measure in America and beyond. The criticism associated with the construction of the Mexican border wall, therefore, forms the main point of discussion.

The dominant opposing trend in the conversations includes the source of funding for the wall, the court case against the idea, and Democrats’ undedicated opinion. President Trump has all along maintained his stance that Mexico would pay for the construction of the 722 feet wall that would cost approximately $19 billion over ten years (Quester). Trump suggested that cutting tax remittances to Mexico through a review of The Patriot Act would provide the money required for the construction of the wall. The US may also decide to reduce trade dynamics with Mexico and use the proceeds of this business distortion to fund the wall.

Mexican President Mr. Pena has consistently maintained that his country would not pay for a project that stands in the way of all what his nation believes in (Quester). Since initial plans to have Mexico pay for the wall are not forthcoming, President Trump is now desperately turning to the Congress to have it provide the much-needed money to build the wall. He plans to exchange this favor for his support of the Democrats’ sponsored program on legitimizing 800,000 undocumented young Mexican immigrants (Morin). The Democrats have expressed disapproval of the construction of the wall and thus refused to throw their weight behind Trump’s budgetary request for border security. In an interesting observation, the same left-wing politicians were for the construction of 700 border wall five years ago (Thiessen).

Lawyers and human rights activists have also opposed the policy of building the wall. The Fifth Amendment has been instrumental in supporting claims made by lawmakers on the breach of the constitution in case the policy is adopted. The Takings Clause states that the government has to pay a fair price for land taken (Livni 6). Livni argues that it would be impractical to pay for land running over 2000 miles. According to David et al., much of the wall is bound to pass along privately held land, or lands owned by Native tribes (63). Therefore, taking such land by the government would be breaching the Takings Clause.

Perhaps the most important reason to explain why the border wall proposal is yet to materialize is the validity of Trump's proposals. Different spheres keep on asking if building a border wall is moral. Further, it is questionable if the intended purpose of the wall would be achieved. Even without the wall, there are forces involved in the smuggling of drugs into the country. These illicit dealings happen in the full glare of law-enforcing authorities.

Additionally, immigration in the United States is not solely from Latinos. There are other avenues through which immigrants enter the country which may not be resolved by the building of the wall. The rhetorical trends behind this conversation are taking the better part of the proposal and appear to crumble Trump's technique of restoring the American greatness.

The lesser voices in the conversation on the Mexican border wall are of the people of Mexico in and out of America and the international community. President Pena's refusal to fund the wall indicates that he is unsatisfied in Trump’s argument that he is responsible for the influx of Latino-associated criminals into the US. Initially, Trump maintained that Mexican immigrants to America were lowly skilled people who contributed nothing to the growth of America’s economy. Any Mexican would recognize this statement as a blatant lie and an open show of disrespect to the Mexican elite in America working in different industries. Mexicans living near the border have already expressed disappointment on the wall since it makes them appear as pariahs (Diaz). Some have even staged a demonstration to oppose the wall, making desperate pleas to Trump's administration to cease seeing them as America's enemies. Mexicans living in the Tijuana region are already unhappy with the heavy machinery producing noise and other forms of environmental disturbance. They are also dismayed by the exploitation by the American government since they have to be hired cheaply to build the wall (Diaz).

A United Nations’ expert on biodiversity rebuked the wall saying that it would result in environmental disturbances. Since flora and fauna have no respect for political borders, a physical wall means that some species would cease to exist since they depend on the natural environment to reproduce (Xinhua). The European refugee crisis also shows that a physical barrier is not effective in controlling immigration (Leon, Paynter). These sentiments are very important and should not be ignored in analyzing this bone of contention. The failure of the wall to work in other places, for example, is proof that physical barriers are not effective in immigration control. 

Conclusively, the backlash associated with the construction of the US-Mexico border wall is likely to cause harm than good. The fact that the wall is a breach to the constitution lacks a supported financial program, prevents free dispersal of flora and fauna between the two countries, and portrays a state of isolation between the US, and its neighbors is an indication that the president should consider other better ways of solving illegal immigration to America. Human rights activists' Proposals to modify immigration requirements to meet UN international standards should be adopted by the president because they promote unity, harmony and humanistic treatment of people. It is recommendable that the Wall policy as presented by President Donald Trump be abolished because it lacks empirical evidence, is inhumane, and is therefore bound to fail even at the expense of taxpayers’ money.


Diabetes is a hyperglycaemic metabolic disease arising from abnormalities in insulin action and secretions.  The chronic type is characterized by dysfunction, damage, and organs failure, particularly for the eyes, heart, kidney, nerves, blood vessels and lungs. Diabetes is mainly caused by activities of several pathogens which may destroy the functioning ability of β-cells in the pancreas, therefore affecting insulin secretion and function. Insulin deficiency and dysfunction lead to abnormal metabolism of carbohydrates, protein, and fats (Ahmed, 2002: 373). Diabetes is broadly categorized into two; type one and type-two, where the classification is based on the hyperglycaemia pathogenesis. This paper will discuss the type two diabetes; causes, prevention, treatment, and impacts on the Mexican population in comparison with the United Kingdom.

                        Type 2 diabetes in Mexico and the United Kingdom

            Type-2 diabetes is common in 90-95% of diabetes cases reported in both Mexico and the United Kingdom. A recent survey indicated that cases of diabetes reported in health centres are at 1.2%; this figure is mainly from the young population. The aging population has not considered the essence for diagnosis, and this has resulted in increased diabetic-related deaths at the age of 55 to 57 years. It has been estimated that over 1.7 million people have diabetes in Mexico; this number is lower that of the United Kingdom where people diagnosed with the disease is estimated to be over 3.5 million. This variation is mainly as a result of preference in lifestyle, where people in the UK have been reported to be less considerate with the type of food they consume and do not do any exercises (Hu, 2001: 790).  According to the World Health Organization (2010), diabetes is among the top five causes of deaths in Mexico. From these findings, the Mexican government has invested heavily in medication and control of the disease putting aside over US$430 million for metabolic and other health services. Type 2 diabetes is insulin independent, and therefore, the patient may not depend on the administration of insulin therapy for treatment. The patient's β-cells are not destroyed in this type of diabetes, but rather other abnormalities such as the unusual distribution of fat, disorders such as anxiety and stress may be the leading causes of the disease. A Patient with this type of diabetes can go for several years without detecting the disease particularly when β-cells are generally functioning.


            Type-two diabetes is more of a lifestyle-related disease than type 1; these lifestyle factors include physical in-activities, cigarette smoking, sedentary lifestyle, high alcohol consumption, and obesity. In Mexico, the leading causes are excessive smoking and inactivity. Over 55% of type 2 diabetes cases are obesity-related; this is as a result of the failure of doing some exercises (McCarthy, 2010: 2339). Also, toxicity in the environment has been listed among other causes of type 2 diabetes, where recent research has indicated the presence of biphenyl a compound in the urine of some patient; this compound is a constituent in some plastics dumped in the environment. Another cause of type 2 diabetes is the genetic inheritance; in this case, the parent with the disease is likely to pass the disorder to one of their children. The risk of inheriting the disease in a monozygotic twin is 100% due to the presence of some shared genetic traits. Some of the transmitted genes associated with type two diabetes include PPARG, TCF7L2, FTO, NOTCH2, KCNJ11, WFS1, IGF2BP2, CDKAL1, SLC30A8, HHEX, and JAZF1. The KCNJ11 is a rectifying route for encoding potassium in the ATP, and regulates the expression of proglucagon genes which enhance the production of peptides; these genes when transcribed by TCF7L2 become inheritable. Other medical factors that cause type two diabetes include hyperlipidaemia, hypertension, syndrome X (Metabolic syndrome), and Cushing's syndrome, pheochromocytoma, cancer, chronic pancreatitis, acromegaly, thyrotoxicosis, and drugs. Aging is another factor that accelerates the risk of getting type two diabetes in Mexico and the United Kingdom. Type-two diabetes associated with hyperlipidaemia and chronic pancreatitis is as a result of the insensitivity of insulin due to resistance, low production, and pancreatic cells failure. As a result, a decline in the transportation of glucose to the muscles, liver, and fats cells occur.


            The Mexican department of health has invested heavily in the screening of diabetes in various health centres. Positive screening is considered as the best pre-diagnosis for treatment of type-two diabetes. According to the American Diabetic Association (1996), 25% of patients diagnosed with the disease also have some micro vascular complications; an indication that they have been living with the disease for more than five years. At this stage of diagnosis, patients have a raised level in polyuria, polyphagia and polydipsia symptoms; they also record a significant loss in body weight. Diagnosis of type two diabetes can be done by measuring the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) - 7.0 mmol/L, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) - 11.1 mmol/L. These two criteria are the most commonly used parameters to determine the level of blood sugar in the body. According to International Expert Committee (2009), fructosamine and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) are another two parameters also used in determining those in high risk of developing the disease, where people with HbA1c levels of 6.0% and less than 6.5% are most likely to develop the disease.  The committee further indicated that necessary actions should be considered to cut off the points for HbA1c, therefore reducing the stigma arising from mistakes of identifying people as diabetic when their HbA1c levels are below 6.5%.

                                                 Management and treatment

            The disease can be managed through the enhancement of individual lifestyle. Also, modification of diets has proved successful in managing the disease. Maintaining the body mass index (BMI) at 25kg/m2 (Baffetta et al.2011), taking food with high fibre content, unsaturated fat, diets with low trans-fat, exercises, taking low amount of alcohol, and abstaining from smoking are some of the essential lifestyle modifications people living with the disease require. Also, patients should regularly get an evaluation of the diet they are taking from nutritionists for better control of the disease. However, recommendations for the diets should consider the functional and physical ability of the patient.


            Medical treatment of type-two diabetes is mainly done using pharmacological agents such as sulfonylurea, meglitinides, thiazolidinedione’s, alpha-glycosidase inhibitors, incretion therapies, dipeptidyl-peptidase IV inhibitors, insulin, and bromocriptine.


            Treatments trigger insulin secretion but pose hypoglycaemia risks where the elders are at high risks than children. This risk can lead to renal dysfunction, and therefore, prolonged exposure to sulfonylurea should be avoided in the elderly (Shorr et al., 2010: 751).   


            This treatment triggers the beta cells to release insulin and facilitate its proper functioning. This treatment is preferred due to the quick action of meglitinides once administered; this after that reduces the hypoglycaemia risk. The treatment is administered before meals to onset blood control of glucose (Blickle, 2006: 113). In cases where the meals are skipped, administration of pre-prandial is considered to reduce risks of hypoglycaemia.




Many parents embrace the decision to manage and treat the condition affecting their children as individuals to prevent unnecessary delays, unpredictable services, and chances of failure. However, the experiences among parents in managing and treating ASD condition differ across races and cultures. Numerous African American parents face challenges in ensuring their children receive proper and timely management and treatment of ASD. Most of the challenges are associated with the socio-economic status and the historical experiences among the African American race. Delayed individual decisions, cultural divergence and differences, lack of resources and connection affect African American parents in the urban settings as they look for support or services to manage and treat the ASD condition with their children. This dissertation aims to analyze the experiences that the African American parents go through while managing the ASD conditions in children aged 5-6 years. The study presents findings which will help in reducing the challenges faced by the African American parents as well as improving their experience in managing and treating ASD in their children.

Key words: autism spectrum disorder, behavioral health services, race, cultural differences, African American parents.



Problem Statement

According to the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network Surveillance Year 2010 Principal Investigators and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), early diagnosis and treatment of the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) conditions translates into effectiveness in the process as well as a better experience among parents and families (2014). As a mental health condition, ASD affects the social, cognitive, and communication skills development among children. Timely diagnosis of the condition prevents severity and complications of the condition and, consequently, heavy investments among parents and families with children suffering from ASD. However, according to research, high rates of late ASD diagnoses among African Americans have been observed with most of the children being diagnosed with the condition two years later as compared to the white people (Burkett, Morris, Manning-Courtney, Anthony, & Shambley-Ebron, 2015). Usually, African American children are diagnosed with ASD at the age of 4-6 years. With early diagnosis of ASD being critical to ensure proper and timely treatment and healing, African American children and their parents encounter more challenges as compared to children of other races (Bonis, 2016). Furthermore, late diagnosis of the condition translates into issues experienced by the parents in providing care regarding attention, medication, and education to the affected children. It also complicates treatment options among the black children and leads to an increased severity of the symptoms that emerge in the later stages (Abramov, 2017).

Despite the advancement in detecting signs and symptoms of autism before three years of age, there have been various factors limiting the timely diagnosis of African American children with the condition. In most of the urban settings, African American parents with children diagnosed with ASD at 5-6 years encounter challenges associated with giving their children the required attention (Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network Surveillance Year 2010 Principal Investigators & Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2014). Therefore, children encounter problems in receiving play therapy through the behavioral health services in the urban residential areas. This study aims at determining the experiences that the parents of the African American children with the ASD condition face in receiving play therapy in urban settings. Thus, the results of the study will present information about the current situation among the African Americans in dealing with ASD as a way to aid in implementing strategies to improve the current experiences.

Literature Gap

There is a limited amount literature addressing the issue of racial or ethnic differences regarding the ASD condition in the United States. In most cases, researchers have focused on the average age for ASD diagnosis. However, in the recent past, there has been a concern on the issue of autism and how it affects the life experiences of the parents and families among various races in the country. Particularly, there has been insufficient research addressing the experience of the African American parents as they attend children suffering from autism in the urban areas. Although different studies showcase the cultural differences in diagnosis as well as the treatment and management of ASD, many researchers have not yet shifted their attention to the black community’s experience in seeking healthcare services for the treatment and management of the condition. According to Pearson and Meadan (2018), many African American parents encounter challenges associated with finances, social connection, delayed decisions, and cultural differences as they engage in looking for solution and support for their children. Lovelace, Tamayo, and Robertson (2018) focused on the experiences faced by African American mothers of sons with ASD. Numerous studies display concern on the issue of ASD among races in the U.S. Therefore, this study aims at exploring the issue by examining the actual experience of African American parents in the urban setting.

Literature Review

A child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) causes issues that have significant impact on the family. The challenges increase with the delay in diagnosis as the complications associated with the conditions intensify. In the U.S., ASD diagnosis is relatively equal to the same number of autism cases being reported among all the races. However, African Americans also encounter issues associated with diagnosis and treatment due to socio-economic challenges (Parks, 2017). Particularly, the African American children receive diagnosis two years later as compared to those of the white people. Most of the challenges arise as a result of delayed decision to seek diagnosis, cultural differences, lack of resources, and poor social connections (Parks, 2017).

According to Zuckerman, Lindly, Bethell, and Kuhlthau (2014), the presence of an autistic child in a family leads to serious impacts on the health, experiences, and wellbeing of other members of the family. According to Pearson and Meadan (2018), autistic children’s parents spend most of their time finding out answers from professionals and physicians regarding the condition and the possibility of a practical solution to help their children. Consequently, parents undergo a period associated with stress and uncertainty about the future of their children as well as their families (Pearson & Meadan, 2018). Parents engage in looking for answers about the intensity of the condition, duration of assessment or treatment, and the predictability of the results of treatment. Such experiences are challenging to parents as they shift the focus from their occupations and families into caring for the specific child with the ASD condition (Lovelace, Tamayo, & Robertson, 2018). At the same time, parents encounter problems while trying to find the adequate health services and therapists to help their children manage the condition (Pearson & Meadan, 2018). For the African American parents, such experiences together with the socio-economic challenges result in impeded processes in finding solutions for their children (Zuckerman et al., 2014). With the rate of autism occurrence being similar across all the races (at 1 in every 500 children), there are difficulties among the parents who are socio-economically unstable (Lovelace, Tamayo, & Robertson, 2018). According to Lovelace, Tamayo, and Robertson (2018), some African American parents and families are affected by their perception towards their encounters in the United States such as socio-economic instability, racism, discrimination, and unequal distribution of resources. As a result, the individual judgments add on to their challenges and problems in finding solutions for their children with developmental disabilities associated with communication and cognition (Lovelace, Tamayo, & Robertson, 2018), which delays the assessment activities such as diagnosis and appropriate recommendations. Some of the perceptions with the parents and families of color affect their ability to find professional physicians and therapists with empathy, trustworthiness, and competency to manage their situation effectively (Lovelace, Tamayo, & Robertson, 2018). At the same time, the history of challenges that the African American people face while seeking services for mental health may also affect the experience in attending to their children with ASD and finding the appropriate health services for them (Lovelace, Tamayo, & Robertson, 2018). African American parents may feel that the discrimination and racism that occurred in their experience will also replicate in the case of their children and therefore, the services will not be beneficial to their children (Longtin & Principe, 2016). In evaluating their decisions and ideas, parents may impede the process of connecting their children with therapies and mental health services. The delay in time translates into the severity of the symptoms and more complications.

As a result, the diagnosis of African American children may take place later as compared to white children. According to Abramov (2017), African American children require more detailed and intensive approach or intervention in diagnosis and detectio

Kaiser Permanente has sought to protect and promote its brand through sustainable integrated marketing communication (IMC) strategies. The company’s approach to the target market includes undertaking a market research analysis to understand the target audience and design customized approaches toward advertising. In addition, marketing efforts focus on building a sustainable brand image by deploying a media mix strategy focusing on traditional media and digital platforms that have provided new approaches in market interaction. Customer perceptions built through direct engagements with clients have headlined the digital media successful implementation. The online engagements through social media are open to everyone and expressed views influence product design. Approaches such as these demonstrate an inclination toward the selling and customer concepts where the company has a clear understanding of the target audience and use of a media mix strategy to drive sales. Furthermore, the customer concept toward marketing drives value addition based on time take to research market needs and use of customer feedback in product design.


Current Marketing Efforts at Kaiser Permanente

            Kaiser Permanente has initiated several strategies toward attaining sustainable market visibility (Silvestre, Sue, & Allen, 2009). Marketing strategies have clear goals and objectives in relation to the target audience, product specifications, and the accessibility of the products. The organization has built a recognizable brand with the intention to build customer loyalty. Use of targeting marketing has helped the organization focus on specific advertising techniques for different demographics while capturing their needs in every product.  Traditional media usage such as print and electronic media outlets continue to propel the company’s market visibility and provide a critical platform in the audience’s interaction with the brand. The media strategy has helped the company link its marketing efforts with advertising, sales, and retail. These efforts are captured in the integrated marketing communications (IMC) experience where the company focuses on brand management through public relations initiatives, buyer behavior, advertising designs based on traditional media, and digital marketing.

            The IMC strategy used in the organization integrates direct response marketing and personal selling advanced through digital platforms and physical client traffic. Digital platforms such as YouTube and Facebook have been used to enhance market visibility with programs such as Kid Wisdom focusing on child obesity and the Thrive campaign executed through the Kaiser website. The digital patient records such as the Patient Health Record (PHR) has enhanced client profiling critical in personal engagement and feedback loop, which also enhances advertising through the website (Silvestre, Sue, & Allen, 2009). Furthermore, it reinforces outbound marketing and inbound marketing based on the ability to use digital content to appeal to specific audience attributes or behaviors while achieving cost efficiencies in advertising. Kaiser Permanente has expressed interest in improving its organic search results demonstrating the significance of digital media in its IMC strategy. The tweetreach campaign through social media is one way that Kaiser Permanente has embraced social media and other digital platforms to improve customer engagement.

Marketing Concepts Applicable to Kaiser Permanente

            One of the ways in which Kaiser Permanente can bolster its marketing efforts to add value to its operations is proper research analysis. It is necessary for the company to present the results in a readable form that can be compared to industry trends and previous years. Proper interpretation of data also means that no bias can be exhibited in the inferences. Moreover, the company needs to eliminate the use of complex statistical techniques that lead to complications in analysis and irrelevant data (Egan, 2007). The best techniques are easily implemented, culminating into well-understood results. When data is analyzed well, it is possible for the organization understand the existing problems, define the opportunities, and adjust the market actions to improve performance.

            Marketing should be aligned to satisfaction of the target audiences; thus, deal with their needs and preferences (Egan, 2007). It is necessary for the company to outline the manner in which its products and services are bound to increase satisfaction or utility of the customers. In this case, one of the areas to market is quality. The clients need to understand that Kaiser Permanente is committed to operate a superior delivery system. Even when operating as a not-for-profit integrated company, the goal is to provide the best services. The service granted to customers dictates their loyalty to the organization. The tagline ‘thrive’ should always be explained in the marketing campaigns to show commitment to total health. Another important factor regarding marketing is the perception of environment or atmosphere. The marketing campaigns should emphasize the kind of positive and rejuvenating environment that the organization provides. Customers tend to prefer environments where they are treated well. Therefore, marketing should highlight how the organization strives to provide the desired environment for the target audience.

             The use of focus groups is important to ensure that elaborate data is collected pertaining to the perceptions that customers have about the company. Market research is pegged on how well data is collected (Vriens & Grover, 2006). In the case of Kaiser Permanente a focus group would be charged with discussions regarding customer perceptions about quality, commitment, and pricing of the health products and services. Since focus groups attract people with diverse ideas and opinions, it is possible to understand the position of the company from different perspectives. In fact, a balanced view of the market is likely to encourage development of relevant inferences on the best marketing strategies (Vriens & Grover, 2006).  Focus groups tend to prioritize on the customers as the main source of information. It is possible to understand the feelings, emotions, and other reactions of customers by engaging them in a marketing forum. A company that seeks to understand the needs and preference of customers is able to develop relevant products and services matching their expectations.

            The organization needs to understand the buying process of consumers. Before availing any product or service in the market, Kaiser Permanente like any other organization should understand the psychology of customers. In fact, customers begin their journey towards actual purchase of a product or service by identifying their needs. In this case, it is necessary to know how customers value different health systems before launching marketing campaigns. The reason behind proper marketing research is that customers also conduct their information search (Egan, 2007). The organizations that present products and services aligned to their expectations tend to lure customers into the phase of actual purchase. Organizations should also focus on creation of competitive advantage to ensure they are chosen by customers even after being analyzed against competitors.



            The marketing concepts demonstrate the company’s ability to adapt to expressed market behaviors. Direct customer engagement is one of the strengths in Kaiser Permanente marketing efforts and defines its understanding of consumer behavior. Influence of customer perceptions through direct interaction has helped the company revamp its brand image while designing sustainable strategy towards its IMC initiatives. Outreach guidelines at the company have integrated market research with advertising strategies to attain sustainable market visibility and customer loyalty. Programs such as the Thrive vision have advanced based on the ability to use an online presence and traditional media to sensitize and educate on personal health.







The use of conventional and literary symbols in literature entails using objects to depict a different, deeper meaning in a story. Whereas conventional symbols are universally agreed upon to represent specific ideas, literary symbols largely depend on the context in defining the meaning they hold. For instance, a rose is a conventional symbol that is famously known to represent beauty and romance. ‘Night’ on the other hand is universally known to symbolize darkness or grief. However, depending on the context, the word ‘night’ may mean a state of loneliness or emptiness. Therefore, conventional symbols hold a universally pre-determined meaning while literary symbols largely depend on the context in establishing writers intentions.

In ‘The Story of an Hour, Kate Chopin presents a literary symbol at the beginning of the novel when she uses the phrase, ‘Heart Troubles.’ Chopin, later on, uses this symbol to relate Mrs. Malad’s physical heart problems to the character's emotional love problems in the marriage. In ‘A Rose for Emily,' the lime sprinkled around Miss Emily's house is a literary symbol used to present the true nature of the people of the town always to hide information. The lime is used to illustrate how far the town can go in keeping secrets. In ‘Battle Royal,' the blindfolded boxing matches are used to symbolize blind hatred upon black people. The blindfold shows the ignorance of the people in hating others by the color of their skin. Conclusively, symbolism has been used extensively in the novels to present a deeper meaning to situations. The real purpose and meaning of such symbols come to light as the books progress towards the end.