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3.1 Introduction

In this chapter, various methods employed in this study to answer the research questions appropriately and achieve set objectives are described. The first three parts describe the research design, followed by the research approach, and then the study population. The fourth part describes the sample and sampling procedure to use. The last parts describe variables and statistical analysis used to analyze data, the questionnaire design, and data collection instrument.

3.2 Research Design

This part presents the overall strategy chosen for integration of various components of the study in a coherent and logical way to effectively address the research questions and the research problem. This study is intended at developing a model to improve procurement time on PPP projects in Nigeria. Research design constitutes a blueprint for the analysis, measurement, and data collection. In this study, to obtain evidence that is relevant to the research problem, the study will specify the type of evidence needed to evaluate a program, test a theory, and give an accurate description of a phenomenon. This will lead to the drawing of strong and convincing conclusion and also adequately address the research problem. According to Creswell & Creswell (2017), research design aims at providing a solution to the appropriate methodological approaches to answering research questions and also the provision of a solution to the research questions being investigated. The study also logically integrates all other research components such as instruments and measurement tools, data analysis, and data collection to help in effectively tackling the research problem.

The research questions to be addressed and the research problem to be solved determines the method to be used in conducting research (Marczyk, DeMatteo & Festinger, 2017). This study employs two common research approaches; qualitative and quantitative methods. Quantitative research design uses some observations and numerical data to explain and examine the reflection of observation. On the other hand, qualitative research design uses observation and non-numerical data to explain the meaning and organization of relationships (Kratochwill, 2013).  Quantitative research deals with sampling or study population and hence giving room for methodological planning before data collection begins. In quantitative research, the core roots for analyzing relationships and drawing conclusions are the research variables. In most instances, the relationships involve a dependent and independent variable, but in some cases where the relationship is complex, intervening or mediating variable is introduced (Cresswell, 2014). An intervening variable is useful in explaining the relationship between variables. The most appropriate method of studying variables is using quantitative method since it allows obtaining of the appropriate outcome by testing variables with the help of theories. The nature of the research questions and research problem in this study requires the use of quantitative research method to help in evaluating dependent and independent variable relates, and also to evaluate causal relationships between the dependent, the mediating, and the independent variables. The quantitative methods employed comply with procurement regulatory guidelines of Nigeria.

This study has four research objectives: the first one is identifying and ranking the determinants of procurement time on PPP projects. The next objective is investigating the relationship between determinants of PPP structure of arrangement and time. The third objective is examining the mediating effect of central government financing between determinants of PPP arrangement’s structure and time performance of projects in Nigeria. Relative Importance Index (RII) was used in analyzing factors influencing procurement time on PPP projects. The last objective is to develop a mediation model for the relationship between time performance on PPP projects and determinants of the PPP arrangement's structure with central government financing as the mediating variable. This objective was achieved through tests of the coefficient of the mediation results.

3.3 Research strategies

According to Kratochwill (2013), a researcher uses a research strategy to answer the research questions. The research objectives and questions thus guide the choice of research strategy. Other factors determining the choice of research strategies include philosophical underpinnings, availability of time, and the extent of existing knowledge. There are seven types of research strategies namely; case studies, ethnography, surveys, experiments, action research, archival research, and grounded theory. Action research focuses on the purpose of the research (Cresswell, 2014) and hence the role of the researcher here is within the research study. Ethnography explain and describe the research subjects and requires a lot of time. Archival research involves analyzing data collected for different purposes to determine the implications of the same. Experiments are used in studying casual links and examining whether a change in independent variable causes the dependent variable to change (Kratochwill, 2013). The survey enables a researcher to gather a huge amount of data from a population. Various sources of evidence are used in studying contemporary phenomenon under case studies. Gaining in-depth insight into the context of research is enabled by this strategy. Grounded theory is adopted to help in explaining and predicting a behavior and it involves basing on a theoretical framework to develop new theories.  The above research strategies are useful because they enable the researcher to answer questions of the research and hence shaping the structure and flow of the study.

This research is carried for explanatory reasons because its aim is to develop a mediation model through identification of effects of central government financing on determinants of PPP arrangements structure that affect procurement time of PPP projects in Nigeria. Survey research strategy is thus appropriate in this study. This research employed a survey research strategy and structured questionnaires to collect data from the participants. Another reason for choosing method is that the targeted population is large and hence selected sample can be used in generalizing outcomes. This strategy is also appropriate because the study also aims at developing a model for the mediation effects of central government financing on determinants of the PPP arrangement's structure that affect time performance of PPP projects in Nigeria.

It is important to state unit of analysis in any research. In this study, data collection and analysis were conducted at the individual level thus the individual was the unit of analysis. The individuals that will participate in the study include government officials involved in the negotiation of PPP projects, bankers, PPP practitioners, Head of selected PPP units in Ministries Department and Agencies (MDA’s) in Nigeria, and PPP contractors. These individuals are appropriate and suitable to respond to the research questions properly. This study’s research objectives and questions have a close relationship with professional services and duties of stakeholders involved in PPP procurement and deals directly with determinants of PPP arrangement structure with factors affecting procurement time on PPP projects. Recent research studies used government officials involved in negotiations of PPP projects to investigate factors affecting procurement time on PPP projects and hence using them in this thus is appropriate.

3.4 Population of the Study

            According to Gray (2013), any research involving human beings needs to compose a detailed and clear definition of the study population. Defining the population of the study is important in determining individuals who are eligible for the study. It is also useful in assuring the overall validity of the study results. Creswell & Creswell (2017) defined the research population as a large collection of objects or individuals who are under study. Large sizes of the population always make researchers not to test every individual in the population since it consumes a lot of time and costly.  Gray (2013) claimed that targeting population that will answer research questions is important. Also, sampling technique to be used determines the nature of research population.

            This study targets government officials involved in PPP projects in Nigeria and PPP contractors. The reason for choosing government officials and contractors is because they are critical in determining procurement time on PPP projects. This study considered individuals from all parts of Nigeria, especially in Northern Nigeria. The study focuses on those parts of Nigeria having most PPP procurement experts. The central part of Nigeria has many PPP experts compared to other parts of the country and hence is the major part that the study focuses to obtain information on factors affecting procurement time and finding ways to improve it. Another reason for focusing on the capital city of Nigeria is because some contractors have abandoned projects prior to completion (Olusola Babatunde, Opawole & Emmanuel Akinsiku, 2012) and hence there is a need for knowing what made them do so.

 The study selected appropriate stakeholders to help in analyzing the problem and hence serving as the unit of analysis. The instrument measures central government financing of PPP projects based on PPP arrangement structure and procurement

Dear Sir/Madam,

The above named person is intelligent, with an ability of having an open mind and different perspectives on controversial matters. It is this intelligence that has allowed him tackle some of the most complicated courses back at home. Also, I noted that he relies on this intelligence to pick courses that are relevant and suit his future academic goals. Notably, I have witnessed his ability to write persuasively especially with regards to essays and reports in line with his courses. Irrespective of majoring in mathematical courses, he took interest in writing to ensure that he wrote all his papers with minimum or no assistance from the faculty. However, he considers the input of his professors of critical importance to his academic growth.

The individual has strong Quant skills that are essential in his mathematical courses. The ability to tackle data and utilize numerical evidence is part natural and part hard work. I noted that he is naturally interested in mathematical problems; however, to improve his skills to the level he is at the moment, he had to work extremely hard and took numerous courses that supported the skills. In the process, he has developed quant skills that are the basis of his interest in taking up other major courses. Additionally, the quant skills open up future opportunities of handling data numerically an issue that makes him quite marketable.

                        He is an active person both inside and outside the classroom. In the classroom, he is an active member of numerous groups that make him possess great team work skills. Outside class, he is a volley ball player and a member of the local volleyball team in the community. Balancing between the two worlds makes him have exceptional time management skills that give me the ability of having active lives in and outside the classroom. Additionally, the balance of the two lives is a result of his ability to self-motivate to reach my academic goals. Considering this person as a student in your institution will be a great honor. Thank you in advance.


                        Yours Sincerely,


Date: 9/2/2015

To The Director,

Essay Grads


Phone: 520 -200- 5908,

Fax: 520 -200- 5908.                       

Cover Letter


            I am a professional writer who has worked in the field of nursing for several years and I am passionate about my work. I am writing this cover letter to seek an opportunity of joining the team at and assist in pushing the organization’s goals and objectives. Being an educational organization, the services provided by the organization are essential to the community as they improve the quality of learning and lives in general.The CEO at Essaygrads has ensured the organization has remained relevant in the industry and thus would wish him to be a contact person.


            The acquired experiences in the field of nursing will play an important role in ensuring I become a productive member of the team at essaygrads. Additionally, I have a masters degree in nursing that gives me a greater opportunity of providing the best freelance services to the institution’s target market. It is my dream to become one of the most experienced health care writer.  Working at will expose me to valuable experiences.


            Please refer to the enclosed resume as it will provide detailed information of my academic qualifications and working experiences. The fact that I am a passionate nurse matches well with becoming a nursing writer at as I will ensure the institution reaches its goals. It would be highly appreciated if I could get an interview that will give the hiring committee a better feel of who I am as a person and a profession. I take this opportunity to thank you for the time taken to review my information; your prompt response will be highly appreciated.





401 N High St. Columbus OH,

43215, USA

Dear Sir/Madam,

            I am writing today to assert the importance of embracing Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as part and parcel of the marketing strategy. CSR is an essential strategy that numerous business organizations are using to ensure their businesses have a great relationship with the clients, the environment, the clients, the employees, and all the stakeholders who have a direct and indirect association with the organization. In the process, the organizations are reaping immense benefits as clients are offered services and products of high quality.

However, my focus is not on the entire strategy but its demands about employees. Research and studies have indicated that employees with high job satisfaction levels are an asset that increases business by attracting more clients to the company. Unfortunately, numerous companies fail to understand how to improve the job satisfaction levels and wind up with disgruntled employees. Therefore I am writing this letter to specifically create awareness of how to improve job satisfaction levels in employees which will enhance service provision especially since the organization is in the hospitality industry. With the stiff competition in the hospitality industry, the organization is required to find a competitive advantage with which it will retain its position as well as surviving the entry of new players in the industry.

One of the ways the organization would improve job satisfaction levels among the employees is using a leadership style that makes the employees feel like part of the organization. Irrespective of the business having a defined leadership style, the management team at the branch could be flexible and accommodate the employees, especially in the decision making process. Through this way, the employees will be accountable as they feel like part of the family and thus increase a sense of responsibility. In the end, the organization will end up with employees who work under minimum supervision which will give the management team time to focus on other matters in the company. Furthermore, the employees will play a vital role in finding solutions to challenges as they handle their responsibilities. It is therefore of absolute importance to allow employees feel like part of the organization.

Another way of improving satisfaction levels among employees is honoring their employment contract. There are numerous provisions in the employee contracts that are meant to ensure the interests of the employee are protected; therefore, following these requirements to the letter will ensure they are in the right mindset to offer services. Some of the provisions in the contracts are financial benefits and day offs; however, there are additional benefits that the company could give the employees. Bonuses and rewards are an example of such gifts that have a high possibility of improving the morale of the employees.

Additionally, the organization should provide a suitable working environment both physically and psychologically. Physically, the workplace should be well aired and with the necessary equipment to enable the workers to complete their responsibilities efficiently. Psychologically, the relationships at the workplace should foster initiative among the employees and encourage teamwork. Through this way, the employees will have improved morale and as their efforts will be appreciated when they are implemented. Notably, with increased employee participation, the organization will collect data that will be essential in having a deeper understanding of the target market.

The relationship between the employees and the management team is of the essence of the harmonious relationship required at the workplace. Therefore, through the leadership style and a friendly environment, the organization should find ways that would increase the chances of a harmonious relationship. Once this is accomplished, there will be adequate communication between the two entities which will be of the essence to the growth and development of the organization. Furthermore, the free flow of information increases chances of noting a problem and finding a solution promptly.

With employees with high levels of job satisfaction the clients and the organization are exposed to employees who are willing to work under minimum supervision, are accountable and initiative, are relaxed, and ready to work. The benefits will have future effects where the clients will come back as a result of the treatment they got from the organization. In this instance, CSR ensures the company focuses on the employees first as they are the direct link between the organization and their market. Additionally, focusing on the employees first and then the profits improve business as the business acquires return clients. Also, the organization will have low turnover levels as the employees will appreciate their jobs.

Ultimately, CSR is a strategy that allows the business to focus on other factors first and making profits secondly. In the hospitality industry, the treatment of the clients is crucial to the company as it defines whether or not the clients will come back. Therefore, ensuring the employees are in right mindset to give the best service possible is of the essence to the survival of the business. Guaranteeing the employees get their financial benefits such as paid overtime, paid day offs, and extra bonuses such as rewards from the organization will increase the morale of the employees which is a fundamental factor to the high job satisfaction levels. With employees that are eager to work the organization has a high chance of finding more clients as well as having an in-depth understanding of their target market.

Quiz One

According to the book, moving forward and involving in decolonization concerns acknowledging historical and perpetual problems that affect indigenous women. The text recognizes the way colonization has disrupted as well as negatively affected the identities together with places that indigenous women occupied in their community and culture (Anderson, 2016, p.12). People should try to understand Indigenous women as persons who have suffered a lot but still resilient as they show that they have continuously challenged the humiliation of colonization. Much of that involvement and fight concerns eliminating the portrayals of indigenous women that have been involved in violence as well as marginalization (Anderson, 2016, p.12). According to Anderson, she tried to express the vision she has on the society where everyone has a place, a gift of bringing ass well as a sense of value (2016, p.13). Besides, she argues that putting forward a positive message involving the identity of indigenous women is a complicated process of reconstruction as well as reclamation. The traditional medical wheel diagram (Resist, Reclaim, Act, and Construct diagram), concerns elements that Anderson illustrates as part of the process of identity reconstruction. The process involves, resisting negative definition of human beings, constructing a positive identity and reclaiming Aboriginal tradition (Anderson, 2016, p.15). Pamela George and Dawn Crey suffered since they were indigenous women, a look which eventually leads to their death.

Quiz Two

Spatialized justice means the unjust and partial way in which the case of the murder of Pamela George was handled (Razack, 2000, p. 91). The killing of the woman from Saulteaux nation in Regina and conviction that subsequently followed of the two white men who were involved in the execution for manslaughter is what is discussed as "spatialized justice," as it was not fairly done (Razack, 2000, p. 96). According to the author, identity about space was a factor during the trial as the victim was taken to belong to a zone of violence while the accused individuals as foreign to space, therefore, less culpable (Razack, 2000, p. 96). The two white men grew up in popular cities, they were from university, and they had come to enjoy themselves in Stroll (Razack, 2000, p. 95). The author employs an unmapping method to support the arguments, that by denaturing the spaces together with persons in the trial, an individual may expose the exact nature of violence as well as hierarchies that are present in the case (Razack, 2000, p. 96). The influence of colonization and the individual's accountability for the position of somebody in history is as well illustrated in the text above (Razack, 2000, p. 93). The book, therefore, explains how race, indigeneity, class, and gender is playing a role in the case of the murder of Pamela, which contributed to favor of the two male, white, as well as wealthy individuals who were the victims in the case of Pamela.

Quiz Three

The men who were convicted with Pamela's manslaughter were given a light sentence (Razack, 2000, p. 96). The article illustrates the gender racial violence and colonization of Aboriginal citizens, which is in progress (Razack, 2000, p. 96). The two white men who went to engage in prostitution are not held accountable after ferocity that takes place in the spaces and on individuals. The text illustrates how the connection between justice, space, and bodies in the regions occupied by racial Others and areas of prostitution are taken as spaces where universal truth is non-operational (Razack, 2000, p. 96). Such violation is constitutionally supported and therefore illustrating why such evil keeps on taking place when conducted by white men and white settler communities (Razack, 2000, p. 96). Stacey experienced spatialized justice in her school when it came to the treatment of the white and the racial Others. The whites were given quick services as compared to other races. People from different racial alignment were harshly judged when they found themselves in a case with a white person. According to the illustration, the white race was taken as superior to others. Besides, the community in the institution were a times gender bias as when dealing with a male and a female student who is involved in a problem; the former is likely to be treated well. Such occurrences were also experienced where other events were conducted in school were they, in a way, discriminated racial others and female gather.

Jackson, the main character is a flat and round character and exhibits internal conflict since he has the desire to save and buy back the regalia from the pawn shop but also wants to use the little he has to take care of his friends and fellow Indians. Despite his generosity, he also steals from his friend. The liquor purchases he makes depict him as a stereotypical homeless man. He also faces man versus man-made environment because he is homeless and drinks too much that he cannot find himself a place to sleep ("What You Pawn I Will Redeem" 1).

The three Aleuts cousins are both flat and round characters, simple and mostly keeping to themselves. The protagonist finds them seated on a bench crying over their boat that left seven years before and which they are still waiting for. They face man versus environment conflict because they are homesick but are stuck. However much they want to live Seattle they cannot return home. Man versus man conflict is also seen when they refuse to sing some songs for Jackson saying they are only for them (Westron, 492).

The bartender is a flat character. He has nothing more to offer to Jackson that the stereotypical bartender actions. He mainly performs the duties expected of him to the extent of denying Jackson the opportunity to stay at the bar and even threatens him. It is typical of him to come at Jackson who blacks out and wakes up with a likely broken nose. The external conflict, in this case, is man versus man conflict and the bartender stands in the way of Jackson finding a place to spend the night even if it means kicking him out after he has spent all his money in the same bar (Dean, 321).

Mary shows signs of being a flat character. She does not show any change in the whole story and being the daughter of the owners of the store chooses to stick to the family ways in terms of employment. She has nothing complex about her character but instead maintains simplicity throughout the narration. The external conflict she faces is man versus man conflict concerning the relationship with Jackson and his proclaimed love for her

The pawnbroker is a round character and very essential in the development of the story. When he chooses to offer Jackson the opportunity to prove that the regalia belonged to his grandmother he gives way to the whole essence of the story. The internal conflict is imminent. To avoid having the cops brought into the issue and also understands that the proof given is valid. He puts into consideration the amount he spent for the regalia and tells Jackson he can win it back if he brought nine hundred and ninety-nine dollars. When Jackson comes back towards the end of the narrative with only five dollars he understands the plight of the Indian man and what he must have been through in order to get the five dollars and he gives him the regalia (Marita & Mónica, 1).

The policeman is both round and flat character. He shows complexity when at first he kicks Jackson before recognizing him then starts being nice. He appears as both a good and a bad guy. He shows man versus society conflict because it is expected of him as a police officer to detain troublemakers or those in need like Jackson but instead of taking him to detox he chooses to give him money and sets him on his way (Kidd & Emanuele, 479).


A Different Mirror is a compilation of works done by Ronald Takaki that shows the plight of minorities in America. The work focuses on social issues such as employment, education, and health of the minority in relation to the majority. America is a multicultural country, a factor that has resulted in a society that is culturally rich. There have been struggles as the diversity in cultures led to clashes that resulted in the minorities facing challenges before settling into normality. Takaki handles the challenges in his work while appreciating the progress the American society has made to date.

            The decisions leading to the challenges the minority faced were primarily made by the majority. The minority posed a threat according to the majority’s perspective as there was a general consensus that they were a burden to the state. The fact that the minorities were immigrants who occupied spaces and territories for instance that was American. The majority therefore made decisions that favored them in a bid to protect their interests; however, in the process, the decisions had adverse effects on the lives of the minority. There are other decisions according to Takaki that have had positive impacts on the minorities; consequently, these decisions resulted from human rights activities.

            Resulting from some of the decisions there has been increased number of immigrants in the country. Increased number of immigrants increases the work force which results to more productive members of the society. America also provides an environment through which numerous people have achieved their goals through the extensive educational programs provided. Currently, America protects the rights of all individuals through the amendments made in the constitution which has direct correlation with some of the decisions made during Takaki’s time.

            From the Takaki’s quote, America is a multicultural society where people from different cultural backgrounds associate harmoniously. The resulting communities have benefitted from the diversity of their society; have common grounds. Strategically, American society has adapted to the differences of cultures and developed a unique culture that is American. The border towns that mostly consists minority are the representation of the American society. Takaki however, acknowledges the fact that there have been struggles as the individuals from different cultural backgrounds find a balance through which they operate. The struggles have laid the foundations of the beauty of the American society.

            In his work Takaki, puts the term struggle in quotes to indicate the importance of the struggle as well as the relativity of the term in context with the subject of the work. In this instance, Takaki focused on the struggles the minority faced to realize the American dream. Takaki create a situation where the struggle is implied to be a psychological issue. Due to the fact that the minorities are essentially different, there are higher chances of clashes which are based on the fear of the unknown. The struggle if it exists is psychological with psychological changes required to improve the society.

            There are physical challenges and barriers needed to be conquered by the minority to have a normal society. The challenges include accepting the differences especially related to religion, politics, and family. Socially, Takaki suggests that American society is based on the psychological behavior of the members. Regardless of the cultural differences and the challenges arising from the diversity, there is a critical need for the society to operate in unison. To achieve this Takaki suggests a complete overhaul of the peoples’ perspective towards the society. To guard their interests the minority must change their mindset and accept the benefits that come with being American citizens.

John Reed was a journalist whose anti-war argument in his work, ‘The Trader’s War,’ focuses on the financial greed that a majority of the cast portrayed in the face of war. The countries that sponsored the war or had huge stakes in it had financial interests. Countries such as England and France were getting involved in the war indirectly to the war by allowing a Diplomatic Conference at Algeciras to take place (Reed 43). Reed’s argument follows the notion that the war was primarily started so that super powers of the time could make financial gains.

            Throughout the war, there were some countries that fought for courses and agendas in which they had little interest. Such countries were coerced into active battle as a result of the relations they had with the fighting parties. The issue of allies according to Reed (56) led to victims of the war who were oblivious to the real causes of the war. The atrocities of war were not a priority when the war was in its initial stages. Additionally, active battle was just the means to an end as the war had been in existence for decades.

            Reed uses several journalistic descriptions that assist his audience to have a deeper understanding of his anti-war convictions. The tone of his work is set to provoke critical thought of the issues that led to war. History suggests that Germany is country that came to existence traders and business organizations organized themselves into a group that took over territories through military warfare. It is in this sense that Reed (62) states that at the time a majority of German business people assumed there was no other to way to make financial development apart from using force.

            The phrase, ‘peace-lovers’ is used to describe parties such as England and France. As earlier stated these two countries were indirectly involved in the war at the beginning. They disguised as peace lovers; however, they succeeded in throwing the world off balance as their allies were in a confused state (Reed 70). Reed uses the phrase to describe how the countries provided the environment required to incite a world war. As the financial beneficiaries of the war the countries worked at ensuring the war took place irrespective of what would happen to their allies and colonies.

            There are scenes in Reed’s reportage that provoke a reader’s negative view of warfare in general. One of such scenes is when a country by the name of Germany was formed strictly as a result of warfare. In such a case, there had to be thousands of people who lost their lives while massive displacement of others occurred. For an individual who understands the consequences of war, celebrating that a country was born from such an action is quite disheartening. Reed allows the readers to make their conclusions from the reading as he does not go into detail; he however, tentatively touches on the point he is trying to make.

            Another scene described by Reed is in the interests of Germans, English and the French. During the time the financial systems depended on the financial capabilities of the country. However, for Germany, French, and England capitalism was the financial system as the country were advanced economically. Based on this concept, Reed describes the countries as capitalists whose interests were to make more money that their rival and sustain their economies. Countries such as Germany on the other hand were not shy in openly announcing their interest in the war; Germany openly announced to the world that it would make huge financial gains from the war.

            Before Germany was formed, England and France had grabbed a majority of the most viable territories throughout the world (Reed 86). The territories were valuable as they provided raw materials that were of utmost importance to the host country. The selfishness that these countries operated on is sufficient to provoke a negative reaction towards war in general. Reed creates a situation where an individual takes up on his anti-war arguments through understanding how the parties involved worked to meet their interests.

            The World War I was primarily started as a result of the financial stakes that a majority of countries had. For instance, Germany understood that the English were making huge profits from being monopolies of the Indian trade (Reed 89). The Indian route opened Asia to England and Germany were envious; therefore, to raise tension Germany made it seem like they threatened the trade route. In the process the English would protect their route which would inadvertently destroy trade in the territory. For a reader, basing a whole World War on selfish trade interests is an issue that has increases the atrocities of war and thus provokes negative feelings. Throughout the reading Reed, describes peace-loving in a way that leads to a negative interpretation. The description therefore, means the opposite or the described parties were not peaceful; this is a negative aspect of the parties involved in war.


As depicted from the article Rethinking Work by Schwartz (2015), there are two perceptions about work and workers. One school of thought holds that employees generally hate work and are only doing it because of the pay they get out of it. On the other hand, the second school of thought holds that employees generally love their work and are motivated to achieve more than just the pay. From the article, the author is more inclined to the second school of thought arguing that people have more to achieve than just the pay. The views presented in this article resonate well with Douglas McGregor’s theory of leadership and motivation. McGregor’s theory X and theory Y are quite in tandem with the views articulate in the article. For example, McGregor’s theory X is well aligned to the first view in the article that employees generally hate work and are engaged in it because they lack any alternative. According to McGregor’s theory X, this is quite possible and there leaders must always monitor and supervise their followers. This actually resonates with the views held in the article that most leaders believe that employees are not concerned with the results but the pay they get out of their work stations (Schwartz, 2015).  On the other hand, theory Y is in tandem with the views of the author, asserting that employees have more commitment to their work that goes beyond the pay.

            Apart from McGregor’s theory of leadership and motivation, there are other leadership approaches that can be used to provide insight on the views held by the author. For example, affiliative management style is quite pragmatic to help in understanding and developing internal motivation. Through this leadership model, leaders work in close collaboration with their followers with the view to empower and motivate them as opposed to supervision whose main aim is to find fault. Research findings indicate that this leadership approach has the potential of creating trust and unity among the mangers and their followers hence leading to internal motivation and general zeal towards work (Michael, 2019).