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Race and class in the US has led to the development of a culture that is only unique to the country. The exposure that Americans get from the exposure of living with people from different cultural background has increased the American experience. According to Taylor the interaction among people with different cultural background leads to rich culture that adds value to the lives of the Americans.[1] Additionally, the class relations have intensified as students learn from each other with regards to social interaction; in the process, students are able emulate some behaviors from each other. Unfortunately, there are high chances of student engaging in unfavorable behaviors learnt from each other.

            Notably, the association between the different races that make up the American population has led to racial tolerance.[2] There are numerous countries especially in Europe where people from different races exist in constant rivalry which has reduced the quality of their interaction as the tension prevents the existence of meaningful relationships. Fortunately, in a majority of states in America people with different racial backgrounds exist harmoniously and have developed relationships that strengthen the bond among them. In school environment, students have friendly relationships with each other irrespective of their races; this includes members of the faculty and issues of racial intolerance are quite few.

            My race has impacted me both positively and negatively. First I have developed a deep understanding of people who are different. The history, social, and psychology classes I take have enabled me to have a different perspective of what each race went through to get where they are at the moment. Additionally, the concept of racial discrimination has become inconsequential to me as I in understanding that we are all Americans enjoying the freedoms and protections provided by the constitution. In addition, i have discovered through the interaction with people from my race as well as from other races that there is no superior race.

            Negative impacts of being in my race are the stereotypes. There is a mentality associated with a specific race and people expect one to behave according to the stereotype.[3] In the process, I have found myself in situations that force me to act as it is expected from my race. Such situations are quite overwhelming as I hate to act in a way that people will feel is normal for a person in my race. In essence, the stereotype is an issue that requires the attention of stakeholders as it can only be abolished if everyone is actively involved in the measures taken.

            To improve racial/class relations the current social studies in the main curricula ought to be strengthened with class exchanges. Students from different racial backgrounds should be put together especially in states that predominantly have a particular race. The exchanges should be done once or twice a year which would give Americans the opportunity of embracing tolerance from a young age. In the process, the children will grow up with the knowledge of handling people from different racial backgrounds effectively. Additionally, the issue of stereotypes is extremely damaging to the image of races. Irrespective of the existence of positive stereotyping, the negative stereotypes are overwhelming; in the process, people tend to look at the negative aspects of the race. Therefore, if there was a way of reducing stereotypes or eliminating completely, the relationships between people of different races would improve. Interestingly, racial conflict is majorly as a result of misunderstanding of the historic social injustices; therefore, history classes should assert the importance of existing harmoniously as all individuals irrespective of their race have a right to be in America and live peacefully.




Controversy on Immigrant treatment in Canada exists. Some Canadians support immigrant social exclusion, while others stand for social inclusion. Fuller-Thomson, Noack, and George (2011) report on more than six million Immigrants being in Canada by 2006, forming about 20% of the Canadian population. The immigrants are usually in better health when entering into Canada but show deterioration in health after a little stay. Social exclusion is blamed for the immigrants’ health problems. This paper is aimed at defining social exclusion and explaining types of social exclusion and how they cause suffering to Canadian Immigrants. The paper will further explain why some Canadians support Immigrants social exclusion, and why others think exclusion should be abolished. Lastly, the paper will offer solutions to social exclusion. Social exclusion as the primary cause of woes on immigrant to Canada is, therefore, my main point of focus.

Social Exclusion

The environment in which we live determines our health and general wellbeing. Society influences this environment. Social factors of health encompass the conditions that a person is born in, grows, stays, works, and becomes old, and that give direction to their health status (Chapman, 2010). When one is raised in an unhealthy environment, his wellbeing is significantly affected. Social exclusion as defined by Newbold (2010) is lack of belongingness, acceptance, and recognition in society. The socially excluded immigrants to Canada are more socially, economically and psychologically vulnerable (Oxman‐Martinez et al., 2012).

Social Isolation

               Exclusion to marginalized areas leaves immigrants with poor and crowded housing (Newbold, 2010). According to Newbold (2010), some immigrants are discriminated in the housing department, or sent to deprived neighborhoods with limited social resources and housing. Poor communities and poor housing increase the chances of poor health. Oxman‐Martinez et al. (2012) further reveals the general wellbeing of children of immigrants, especially those of school-going age affected by social isolation. Isolation occurs both in school and out of school where peers seclude each other based on color, origin, and language. 

Psychological Exclusion

According to a report by Oxman‐Martinez et al., (2012) Social exclusion causes psychological exclusion. The report reveals that immigrant school going children are psychologically affected by perceiving their teachers treating them differently from indigenous Canadian children. The treatment, as documented in the report is determined by the length of time stayed in Canada, ethnicity, level of education of the parents, and single parenthood. Additionally, depression, loneliness, and stress have led to psychological complications causing diseases such as ulcers and high blood pressure to the immigrants.

Economic Exclusion

Labor market exclusion takes the form of excessive recruitment of immigrants to low-income sectors and occupations of the economy, very low chances of employment in high-income sectors and professions, and high rates of unemployment and underemployment. Economic exclusion has born racialization of poverty which encompasses powerlessness, voicelessness, insecurity and vulnerability on the hands of the native Canadians (Brown, 2018). Economic exclusion hurts the health of immigrants. Brown (2018) reports many racialized workers being forced to work in poor and hazardous working conditions that affect their health.

Reasons for support of Social Exclusion

Canadians expressed support on Social exclusion in the Policy Research Initiative report (2003). According to the report, Canadians, unlike Americans and other people, hold peace, safety, and security as top priorities. Victims of crime and violence have expressed their fears about Immigrants. Police reports reveal that most criminal cases involve immigrants. Therefore, native Canadians choose to seclude themselves from Immigrants. Another reason for the support of Immigrant social exclusion, as documented in the report is the lack of government involvement of native Canadians when making migratory rules. Additionally, Canadians view social exclusion and discrimination as embedded in society hence have to tolerate the Immigrants presence.

Reasons for supporting Social Inclusion

Some Canadians support social inclusion. According to the Policy Research Initiative (2003), social inclusion will lead to an increase in employment, for both Canadians and immigrant because some immigrants have started businesses and would hire Canadians to their workforce. Besides, social inclusion will enhance civic engagement, eliminate discriminating and racism on both Canadians and the Immigrants.

Conclusively, research indicates that Canadians fear on Immigrants is a complex cultural phenomenon that they have to tolerate. Time and engagement with the local Canadian communities would help in reducing the fear among Canadian citizens. I would recommend the government to engage the Canadian people, from the grassroots in addressing the concern that they have with the Immigrants. In my view, Social exclusion leads to suffering and slow economic growth hence should be discarded.

Economic inequality between whites and blacks present one of the most discussed issues over the years. The persistent debate is because economic inequality is a trend that has been in play even before independence. The government has made efforts in trying to bridge the gap between the upper-class whites and the low and middle-class blacks. However, there has been disagreement in a number of issues including ways of effectively reducing the economic gap without causing an economic crisis and causes of increasing economic disparity despite the rise in the income of blacks. Robert Maduca holds the view that racial discrimination between whites and blacks is the main cause of economic inequality between the two races. Although there are several factors that cause Economic inequality, Racism, as argued by Manduca, is more convincing. Therefore, racism as the cause of economic inequality is the main thesis of this article.

One appealing argument of this article is how the disparity in income distribution increase economic inequality among the citizens in the US. Income distribution describes the organization in rank between whites and blacks. At present, and for a very long time, blacks make most of the low and middle class while the whites occupy the upper class. Manduca argues that when the national income is distributed, the upper class receives the lions share while the rest goes to the other classes. Manduca also examined that only Government can control the income distribution by increasing education supply to the blacks and mitigating laws that call for racial representation at the places of work.

Parental wealth is another factor used by Maduca in trying to explain economic inequality. He relates parental wealth back to social classes where he argues that the children of the whites receive more wealth from their parents than those from the blacks. In this regard, more economic stability and gain are experienced by the children of the whites than those of the blacks. As they inherit the wealth, they are structurally placed at high levels of employment hence earn more. This builds the economic disparity gap even further. He further explains that since whites occupy the high ranks in the labor market, the hiring of top employees is at times racial based. For instance, Maduca says that when blacks apply for jobs, the probability of being called for interviews is less both for low paying and better-paying jobs that need more qualifications. Furthermore, he says that when blacks get high paying jobs, they are at times earn less than their white counterparts.

Another argument presented in the article is on racial stratification. This goes down to family income and family structure. Bloom argues that difference in the structure of whites and black families is a major cause for the continued economic disparity (57). His argument supplements Maduca’s findings that outline most families of the whites to having educated members who have well-paying jobs. Black families, on the other hand, are less educated and few of them get employed on the high paying jobs. Moreover, most families are run by single parents. Dropout rates for black children are also high. Consequently, economies of returns on employment for blacks is lower than that of whites. This projection has the effect of tilting the economy of the United States towards the rich.

Another argument presented for racism as a cause of economic inequality is that shown by the gap that exists between those occupying the topmost levels of earning and those at the bottom. The people who own the means of production are mostly whites who tend to hire fellow whites or family members. However, due to government intervention, they are encouraged to present a mixed race workforce. Therefore, they hire blacks but pay them a meager salary.  The outcome of such an arrangement leads to a reduction in the employment gap. However, the rate of income disparity increases because the blacks are majorly employed to serve on the low-level ranks. This leads to a trend whereby the middle-class income is low while that of the class is very high.

Lastly, Maduca argues that other than racism, larger shifts in the economy have attributed to economic inequality. He points out that the emergence of technologies that require skills in operations further led to an increase in the economic gap between whites and blacks. He says that during the industrial revolution, and in recent times, more whites had college and university degrees as compared to blacks. Therefore, to an extent, it led to the current employment structure. Conclusively, Maduca argues that despite various strides by the blacks in scaling the heights, the economic disparity gap still exists and asserts that one way of trying to bridge this gap would be through viewing the disparity as caused by the general population rather than individual families or groups of people. However, Maduca has been criticized for ignoring key factors such as the impact of recovery from an economic crisis on the very rich who are majorly whites as a cause of income disparity in the US.

Deviant behavior encompasses various actions and practices which are against the societal norms which include the implemented rules and the open social norms violation. The paper looks into the issue of deviance and social behavior concerning various theories of deviance which have been laid out by multiple scholars. There is a popular argument that deviance lies in the beholder’s eyes, but after detailed research, that was found out to be wrong. Deviance is an adopted abnormality which sociologists and scientists have been trying to find solutions to it for decades, but have seen none. There are about seven significant deviance theories which have different perspectives and opinions on the issue of deviance. This paper looks into an example of deviance and relates it to the Sutherland and Cressey’s theory. Moreover, the article seems into the difference between social control and life course theory as well as the ethical considerations that researchers should have in mind when researching about deviance.

Deviant Behavior

            Sutherland and Cressey’s theory of differential association is regarded as one of the most popular methods of social learning. His focus was on the white collar crimes, professional theft, and intelligence and he came up with the notion that offense was as a result of people's inability in the lower social class. For instance, take an example of a poor widow who has six children who are leaning on her for basic needs provision. The mother has no one to look up to, and the children require education, food, clothes, and shelter. Although the mother is a receptionist at a local primary school, the salary she gets at the end of the month is barely enough to even for one kid among the six. In this case, therefore, the mother decides secretly creep into finance department files and hack the school account login details after which she steals a substantial amount of from the school account. According to the norms, this could be a very embarrassing and wrong action to take especially for a mother. Nevertheless, the work is as a result of financial inadequacy of the mother because she is on a lower social class.

            Sutherland in his opinion believes that crime does not come from one’s character but is from the socio-economic positions that they are in which affects their way of doing things. Acquisition of behavior is a process of social learning and not a legal or political means. Moreover, the motives and skills that lead to crime come as a result of contact with pro-crime attitudes, definitions, values and other patterns that relate to criminal acts (Cohen &Stanley 16). The primary principles of the differential theory are that criminal behavior arises among intimate groups where illegal strategies are learned. Perceptions of right code impact drives and motives whereby differential relations tend to be different in terms of the priority, intensity, and duration of the process of criminal learning behavior.

Life Course Theory and Social Control Theory

 According to research, the life course theory and social control theory indicate that the primary findings concerning crime and delinquency from cross-sectional and longitudinal research are similar. The correlations comprise of age, stability, and versatility. Arguments have come up concerning the impacts of generation on crime whereby they tend to embrace all the fallacies that are identified in the life course theory. The control theory states that delinquent operates as a subset of acts which bring out an immediate benefit on a long term basis and such actions are rampant among people who are not likely to consider the long term effects of their present behavior. Control theory is therefore believed to minimize the causal importance of various life course events and views the events as results of the methods that explain versatility.

In criminology, social control theory suggests that exploiting the socialization process and social learning brings self-control and minimizes the inclination to involve oneself into antisocial behavior. The approach borrows its concepts from the functionalist theories of crime. The method of social control theory brings the notion that people‘s norms, values, and beliefs give them the motive of avoiding violation of the law. Therefore if moral codes are internalized and individuals are restricted into them, they will individually minimize their possibility to engage in deviant behavior (Cohen &Stanley,17). The theory aims at understanding how criminality can be reduced which is developing in individuals. Most of the old research on social control theory is based on self –reporting studies. Critics of self-report data propose that there could be different reasons for disclosing information.

Life course theory, on the other hand, is mainly referred to as the life course perspective and entails the multidisciplinary paradigm of the study of people lives, social change, and structural contexts. The approach encompasses the observations and ideas from various disciplines, sociology, demography, biology, economics, and developmental history. Precisely the theory focuses on the powerful link between historical and socioeconomic contexts as well as the lives of individuals. Life course is defined as the events and responsibilities enacted by an individual over a long period. On the contrary, life course perspective explains the essence of time, process, context and meaning of human development and family life (Cohen &Stanley,23). Family, in this case, is regarded as a small social group in a significant social context as a group of people with similar history and who socialize in dynamic social settings across the ever-increasing space and time.

Ethical Considerations

There are numerous aspects which sociologists are required to consider when conducting their research. In the sociological research guidelines, these researchers are needed to skillful and have a fair mind especially when they are dealing with human subjects. One of the critical aspects when studying deviance behavior is that the researcher needs to obtain informed consents from their questions concerning the risks and responsibilities as well as the risks that are likely to be encountered during the research they are about to take part in. In the course of the study, the researcher is required to ensure that the participants are safe and should stop in case any of the subjects is at risk.

            Another issue is that the privacy of the participants needs to be protected by the researcher as much as possible. Even in cases where courts or the police researchers pressure the researcher are not allowed to give any confidential information concerning their participants (Cohen &Stanley 32). It is their responsibility to avail results to the other sociologists interested in studying deviance behavior on the participants and also make public the sources of finance. It is imperative for the researcher to be aware that they are not allowed to receive any funding from a third party or an organization because it would lead to a conflict of interest and influence the results of the study for its benefits.

            According to Max Weber, there is another ethical consideration that should be considered by researchers in studying deviance behavior. Weber knew a lot about the impact of personal values on the framework for releasing research results. Marx embraced the fact that some aspects of research design are capable of being influenced by their benefits but believes it is wrong to allow their values to shape how responses for the research are interpreted. According to him, sociologists need to establish neutral values whereby they remain impartial and fair throughout the study session and during the publication of the results. It is required that sociologists disclose the findings of the study without any form of alteration or removal of any significant data.

            According to most sociologists, it is not possible to abandon personal values and maintain compete for focus. They caution the readers to have an understanding that sociological studies are likely to have a certain level of bias (Cohen &Stanley 38). The aspects allow the readers to look at them as a form of truth or one fact. There are attempts by some sociologists to avoid criticism and remain objective as they can during their study of cultural institutions. The issue of value neutrality means trying their best to overcome any form of biasness during data analysis. It means making sure they do not skew data to suit the predetermined outcome which goes along with a specific agenda such as a political or a moral point of view. Investigators are given the obligation to report results even in cases where they tend to cause contradictions of personal opinions, common beliefs or foreseen consequences.

            To sum up, after a detailed examination of the aspect of deviance and social behavior as well as the different theories of social deviance, it can be concluded that it is not logical to say that deviance lies in the eyes of the beholder. It is also essential to point out that there are two primary ways of viewing deviance according to sociologists, the relativist and the absolutist's way. The absolutists way are unwilling to cut any slack at all while discussing deviance as an impact of the environment, society and other factors t

Occupational identity is the societal influences that an individual can adjust, reject or respond to depending on their personal inclinations and talents (Huws, 2012). The production of occupational identity happens when there is intersection of division of labor and social structures that includes caste and class (Huws, 2012). The mass production in companies devalues occupational identity; as a result, workers become disposable and replaceable. For instance, an individual endures or digests the contradictions that results during an interaction processing that is more or less successful between societal and personal demands (Huws, 2012). The knowledge economy is a program of consumption and production that depends on intellectual capital. Typically, knowledge based economy represents economic activities in first world countries. The time of balancing building workplace solidarity, tension arises because of shared occupational identity as worker’s skills and knowledge increases (Huws, 2012). Besides, tension emerges as the ability of capital to balance a requirement for skilled labor with an aim to increase mechanized toil by offering work where possible.

According to Huws, capitalism has taken over all life aspects from culture, personal relations, art, and social interactions (2012). The rapidly transforming technology enhances interactions with families, colleagues at work, and friends. For instance, such interactions depends on channels intended to capitalize on each word (Huws, 2012). The automation of work and labor is increasing. Therefore, the information and products can easily cross national borders increasing efficiency and reducing cost as well (Huws, 2012). The text illustrates the subtle commodification of daily life that challenges individuals to reconsider the contradictory nature of exploitation of labor under the recent law of capitalist.

In occupational identity, the working towards future, industry, productivity are forefront. “…one of my central themes was capitalism’s extraordinary ability to survive the crises that periodically threaten to destroy it by generating new commodities.” (Huws, 2012). During early adulthood and adolescence, much maturation depends on constructing an occupational identity that enhances the achievement of meaningful work. Disappointingly, the values associated with such stages are identified only with certain communities (Huws, 2012). Productivity therefore varies in different culture. For instance, levels of productivity in some areas are more than others creating disparities in employments.

The spatial of labor is the variation of different stages of economic activity worldwide resulting into specialization of work in different places (Huws, 2012). The world city that is agglomerated with high points of intermediary economy are associated with Global Property Network Standards (GPNS) is tempting to concentrate in (Huws, 2012). However, there can be low productivity, low wages, and poor working conditions. According to Huws, one of the current ironical situation is that the footloose individuals or those with deep ancestral roots in the area in which they work may do the most footloose works (2012). For instance, there is increasing number of individuals who are immobile at any time e so that they can serve the rising virtual and physical nobilities of other people (Huws, 2012). Besides, the diurnal rhythms of life that are old are interrupted by needs to respond to worldwide demands as most people are expecting everything to be normal. The normalization process is increased by existence of growing numbers in each city of those who are spatial but not temporal residents. “…the traditional diurnal rhythms of life are disrupted by requirements to respond to global demands...” (Huws, 2012).

The staff across the globe depends on fixed labor. Such form of labor is crucial during production as it is constantly available (Huws, 2012). Without fixed labor, the production may not occur, and if it takes placer, it will be at a slower rate. As a result, there is reduced quantity of goods produced. The total GDP also reduces, decreasing the rate at which economy grows (Huws, 2012). The employment opportunities reduces. Concurrently, some businesses closes reducing job opportunities. The welfare of the citizens is therefore negatively impacted. During production, temporal division of labor can be summed to more familiar spatial divisions of labor incorporated in production (Huws, 2012). The in-between characters of the majority’s work experience of cybertariat are characters of with qualities fixedness and foot looseness who are in continuous tense interaction with one another (Huws, 2012). The physical realities disturbs virtual doings while virtual rooted accomplishments interrupt the rooted real time activities.

A push factor is a distress that drives an individual away from a certain region while, a pull factor is what is concerning the nation to which one migrates. Generally, a benefit attracts people to a given region (Golash-Boza & Menjivar, 2012). Therefore, a region which conducive factors should have large population. Contrarily, the nations or regions where individuals are migrating from is believed to contain fewer benefits (Golash-Boza & Menjivar, 2012). Such places may have less population and business activities and as a result, stagnates in development. The push and pull factors are mostly taken as the north and south poles of a magnet. For instance, an individual can be attracted towards a place for a different reason which is different from the one another person will be leaving the region the other person is coming to, and moving to the area where the other individual has migrated (Golash-Boza & Menjivar, 2012). The push factors are associated with few job opportunities, political fear or harassment, religious persecution, and poverty. Besides, high levels of crime, natural disaster, famine or drought, inadequate facilities and services constitutes push factors. While, the pull factors include good infrastructure, religious freedom, political stability, peaceful environment, and better living standard (Golash-Boza & Menjivar, 2012). In addition, excitement or new discoveries, family links, less crime, better policing, varied employment opportunities, and good infrastructure and examples of pull factors. Furthermore, better climate, more fertile land, good health care, lower risks from natural calamities, and chance for greater wealth also push factors (Golash-Boza & Menjivar, 2012). In the United States, sociological evidence that shows the need for rights to mobility in the present state of globalized economy is the flexible movement of goods and services. “…migrants travel most frequently to fulfil their human rights to freedom from persecution, to an adequate standard of living, and to be with their families…”  (Golash-Boza & Menjivar, 2012). The above arguments defends the quoted words.

Immigration is living permanently in a foreign nation. There is eventual loss of cultural uniqueness for immigrants in USA in Latino and African Americans (Golash-Boza & Menjivar, 2012). The rights of migrant workers are violated together with their families as they are blocked from access to social services, to education and shelter, and to housing rights (Golash-Boza & Menjivar, 2012). Besides, some Latino and African Americans are denied the right to work and earn honorable incomes and therefore cannot meet some of their basic needs. ‘…On the receiving end, immigration policies have profound effects on the rights of migrant workers and their families, including blocked access to social services, to housing rights, to education and health, to the right to work and earn dignified wages to meet basic needs of food and shelter…”  (Golash-Boza & Menjivar, 2012). Nowadays, migrant rights to move and associate with family members is almost impossible.  For instance, the laws in the receiving nation makes it almost impossible for a family member to pay the migrant a visit, also, because of the high cost of transport, a migrant may find it difficult to unit with the family member. “This situation is prevalent among…Central American women in the USA…” (Golash-Boza & Menjivar, 2012). The families of such individuals can break up, affecting the lives of the children as well as the spouse. Besides, the family may miss the affection from the member of the family. Such cases may result to increased street children in the mother country because of divorce, which may take place between the parents. “We see instances of this situation among Latin American-origin immigrants in the USA, as well as among African immigrants…” (Golash-Boza & Menjivar, 2012). Therefore, the federal state should consider loosening the immigration rules to favor the families of African and Latino American immigrants.

Post-Fordism is the theory that illustrates why current firms should the mass production methods that Henry Ford pioneered to small flexible industrialized units (Wigfield, 2017). “The idea of Fordism initiated by Henry Ford, who was an American industrialist and theforefather of the Ford Motor Company, he also sponsored the improvement of the assembly line system of mass production” (Wigfield, 2017). The Post-Fordism is associated with the application of service industry and new technology and therefore globalizing financial markets and enhances communication, improving trade. In the Post-Fordism model, the production is tailored according to the needs of the customer