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    1. Introduction

            Cobra beer is a company in a competitive industry that requires aggressive marketing strategies to sustain the clients and assist the company in finding a competitive advantage that would allow the company to remain relevant in the industry. A deeper analysis of the situation indicates that the CEO of the company is quite informed about the trends in the market which gives him an upper hand in coming up with strategies that suit the company. Through the strategies, the company is leading the industry in terms of sales and profits; customer adding values have played an important role in ensuring the company has sustainable sales. The following report focuses on the beer industry in which the company belongs and the internal and external factors that affect the company and its ability of maintaining its position in the industry. Additionally, the report will analyze other contributing factors such as Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) demands that play an important role in how the company handles its clients and the revenue. From the report, there will be a clear understanding of the beer industry and the factors that affect the success of Cobra Beer Company as well as the strategies taken to maintain its success.

2.0. The Company’s External Environment

            As earlier stated, the beer industry in the UK as well as in other regions is an extremely competitive industry that requires entrepreneurs who have an ability of finding innovative strategies of survival. Hasan (2011, p. 67) is of the idea that the stiff competition is a direct result of the fact that beer is one of the highly consumed beverages in the world. It is this fact that has led to thousands of entrepreneurs penetrating the industry. The competitiveness have led to entrepreneurs investing huge amounts of finances into ensuring they find and maintain a competitive advantage over their competitors. Cobra beer has maintained its leading position in the industry through handling the external pressures tactfully without interfering with the company’s ability of increasing its revenue. For instance, with regards to new entrants in the market, the company relies on the fact that it provides a different product which is basically its competitive advantage. Internal pressures provide a situation where the company has an opportunity of strengthening its strategies and finding ways of finding a solution for its weaknesses. Both internal and external challenges have led to increasing the effectiveness of the company and its ability of being competitive.

2.1. Macro Environment Analysis – Porter’s 5 Forces Model

            The internal challenges that Cobra beer handles include;

  • Supplier Power – considering the competitive nature of the industry, the suppliers can drive up their prices and affect the company’s cost of production which would lead to an increase of the prices which might negatively affect the company’s sales. In this case, Cobra Beer Company ensures it has contracts with the suppliers.
  • Buyer Power – the competitive nature of the industry also affects the demand of their product which might lead to low prices. However, ensuring the company provides the clients with unique products ensures the clients loyalty is cemented which is paramount to the sales of the company.
  • Competitive Rivalry – the rivalry in the industry has forced entrepreneurs in the beer industry to take serious consideration of the effect of the competition to their daily business activities. In the process, the CEO of Cobra Beer Company has ensured they are fully informed about the emerging markets and the changing trends in the target market which has increased their ability of providing new and different products.
  • Threat of Substitution - in this instance there are so many beers available for the customers to choose from which creates a threat to Cobra Beer Company. It is in this sense that the company ensures their products are a bit different from those in the market.
  • Threat of New Entry. New entrants in the market provide a slight threat to Cobra Beer Company as the company is established and has a strong reputation.

2.1.1. Micro Environmental Analysis

            The company faces internal challenges that in most instances affect the daily business activities while providing the management team an opportunity of learning the strengths and the weaknesses of the company. Barrows & Neely (2011, p. 76) suggests that the ability to handle such challenges is paramount to the survival of the business. The following are some of the internal challenges that Cobra Beer Company faces are;

  • Price Restriction. This proves to a challenge to the company as the government has stipulated the price at which the products should be sold to reduce unfair competition. However, this might become tricky is for instance the cost of production raises and cannot be reflected on the prices and inadvertently reduces the profit margin.
  • Government tax and regulation. Considering the sensitivity of the industry, the government has to provide regulation to ensure the products are fit for human consumption. Unfortunately, the taxes and regulations interfere with the distribution of the products evenly throughout the target market’s region.
  • Advertisement Barrier. Advertisement are meant to prevent people from over indulgence of alcohol; however, the barriers have significant adverse effects on the sales of the products as there are individuals who are not reached by the information about the products.

2.2. PESTEL Analysis

There are other factors that affect the distribution and sale of beer in the region as well as in other parts of the world. The position of the company in the industry is clearly indicated by the PESTEL Analysis which is as follows;

  • Political – The political stability of UK has provided an ample opportunity where Cobra Beer Company has been successful. Political stability is paramount for business as it ensures there is security for both the entrepreneurs and their clients.
  • Economic – The economic condition of the region creates a situation where the company has grown as there is support from the different factions of the economy.
  • Social – Drinking beer is a social activity that has seen numerous companies rise to success. The social fact about beer has played an important role in the success of Cobra Beer Company.
  • Technological – There has been a great technological improvement since Cobra Beer Company was founded. Fortunately, the management team at the company has ensured the company is in line with the technological demands of the 21st Century.
  • Legal – Cobra Beer Company operates legally under the provisions of the governmental regulations as the products are meant for human consumption and are in need of approval.
  • Environmental analysis – Analyzing the company’s operations, there is a clear indication that the company’s production services are within the going green campaign demands that require that the environment should be a first consideration in the production stage.

2.3. The Life Cycle Theory

            Cobra Beer Company is experiencing immense success and is at the maturity stage of the Life Cycle Theory. Therefore the next stage is decline; however according to Yoo (2000, p. 14), this stage might last even for twenty years. Considering the longevity of this stage, the management team at the company is focusing of the continuous of the business and is training employees who will take over once the current CEO retires. Through this way, the trained employees will have first-hand information and experience of the demands of the company which will be of extreme importance during the handover and succession stage. The current management team at Cobra Beer Company is focusing on the anticipated changes in the market trends that will be influenced by other factors such as technological advancements. Additionally, in the maturity stage, expansion is possible as the company is making massive profits; which is the reason Cobra Beer Company is making investments in other regions such as Asia.

3.0. Analysis of the Internal Environment

3.1. Resource Based View of the Company

            Leiblein (2011, p. 67) suggests that through the resource and capability theory, companies use all the available resources both tangible and intangible resources at their exposure. In this case, Cobra Beer Company utilizes both human and mechanical resources to ensure that the company has sustained its revenue. A deeper analysis of the company indicates that the company is investing massively in new markets and taking advantage of the availed resources. For instance, the company has acquired a brewery in India in 75,000 acre piece of land. Such investments have the ability of attracting other resources such as man power needed to run machines once the brewery is up and running. However, such investments are a result of thorough market research that ensures the str



The current global commercial morphology requires an efficient model of handling business processes. Many entrepreneurs are seeking to get leverage in their operational strategies regarding their businesses to be able to remain competitive in the commercial activities that they pursue. As a strategy of growth, BPM seeks to establish a seamless operational module that offers support to the manner in which businesses processes are undertaken.

The concept of BPM was theorized on the assumption that effective coordination of commercial processes is the ultimate goal of any business procedure. Intensive growth within any entity is hewn on enhancing the modalities through which these processes are handled. In this work, the concept of BPM has been elaborated. The focus is to highlight the manner in which BPM enhances organizational efficiency.

BPM is a critical aspect in the management of the organizational workflow. BPM encompass a range of activities within the organization that is meant to streamline the operations of the organizations in a more seamless manner. It enhances the agility of the organization and enhances the collaboration between major actors within the organization. BPM allows businesses to maintain their competitive advantage through a series of strategies specifically meant to ensure the company remains relevant in its industry. The goal of this discourse is to explore the input of BPM in enhancing the effectiveness of an organization and propose the method of organizational effectiveness improving by BPM using. Through the use of a case study, this paper will emphasize on the significance of the process in enhancing the effectiveness of the organization.

The first chapter of the work will focus on highlighting the various concepts of business process management. The second chapter relates the role of BPM to organizational effectiveness. In this regard, the discourse gives an in depth analysis of how BPM contributes to the effectiveness of an organization.  The third and last chapter use a specific case study to highlight how BPM is relevant in enhancing the effectiveness of organizations.
























                     I Chapter  Business Process Management basic concepts


1. Process approach to management

Business process management refer to the operations in business that are aimed at improving the operations of the business. the concept entails all those approaches that are employed by the management of any business enterprise, to "manage" and "optimize"  the operational processes within an organization. BPM borrows its concept from the realization that many factors or activities work in consonance to drive any business agenda, therefore, there is an urgent need by the business to adopt strategic models of ensuring that the set of business activities work efficiently to advance the business agenda. It seeks to instill more control on the various business processes and further the objectives of the organization.

As a business growth strategy, BPM consists of several other elements. These elments are critical factors in ensuring that the business activites within an institution are optimised to ensure efficiency in the operations of the business. These elemnts entail the under listed:[i]

i. Project management

ii. Vendor management

iii. Complexity management

iv. Standards management

v. Strategy management









1.1 Process approach to management

 We are living in such world, where the speed and agility is almost everything. It is essentially true for a business. To survive, the company should be able to adapt rapidly to all new changes, to be manageable and flexible. In small company all employees are in full view of managers, moreover, the most of work can be done directly by manager. The situation in larger organizations is way more complicated. In enterprises with a staff of fifty to hundred people, it is impossible to control each individual employee. Business process approach to management is a key of an organizational survival.

The main concept used in business process approach is the definition of process. There are a number of different definitions, but the most commonly used one is the standard ISO 9001.[ii] It defines the process as a “Set of interrelated and interacting activities, which transforms inputs into outputs”.  The important component of the process, which is not mentioned in the above definition, is a systematic character of the actions. Steps of the process must be repeated and not random.

The business process approach was developed and is used to create the horizontal communication within the organizations. Departments and employees, involved in the same process, can individually coordinate the work process and solve the problems without the Senior Management involvement. Process approach enables to solve the problems more efficiently and to impact on the result. Unlike the functional approach, the process management allows to concentrate not on individual department work, but on results of the organization as a whole.  The process approach is changing the definition of the organizational structure. The key element is a process. According to one of process approach principles, the organization consists of processes and not departments.

The process approach is based on several principles.[iii] The implementation of these principles can greatly enhance the efficiency of work; however, it requires the specific corporate culture. The transfer from functional to process management requires the continuous collaboration of employees, despite the fact that they may belong to different departments. The “performance” of process approach principles will depend on the successful collaboration of employees.

For the implementation of the process management it is important to adhere to the following principles:[iv]

  • Interaction of processes. The organization is a network of processes. Process is a performance of any activity. All processes of the organization are interrelated.
  • Process demand. Each process should have a well-defined goal and output demand. Each process outcome must have its own internal or external customer.
  • Process documentation. The process activity should be documented. This enables to standardize the process and acquire the base for the change and further process improvement.
  • Process control. Every process has the input and output, which define the process boundaries. Each process within its boundaries has indicators, characterizing the process and its results.
  • Process ownership. Various experts and employees may be involved in the process execution, but responsibilities for the process and its results should be assigned to one person.

Process approach requires a number of key elements for its successful implementation in the organization.

Key elements include:

  • Input;
  • Output;
  • Resources;
  • Process owner;
  • Customers and Suppliers of process;
  • Process indicators



Organizational structure




                             Administrative structure



Process quality system

Business process

Business process management system





Figure.1.1 The inputs of the process are the elements, which undergo the changes

            The inputs of the process are the elements, which undergo the changes during the workflow.[v] Inputs of a process approach are: materials, equipment, documentation, various information, personnel, finances, etc. Process outputs are considered to be the results of the activity. The output refers to a tangible product, as well as any kind of service or information. Resou

The target audience for the training was us the employees of Essaygrad. The training was targeted primarily at the employees as they were the first contact between the business organization and the clients who were a crucial stakeholder in the existence of the business. The objectives of the training were based on the fact that the business organization was in the service industry and thus was in direct contact with its clients which made it paramount to have employees that were highly trained. Performance was one of the training’s objectives as to have success the company was in need of employees who had high performance. Secondly, the training intended on increasing the efficiency in which employees handled their responsibilities which would greatly improve the company’s value in the industry. The training site was strategically located away from the business premises in an attempt to change the environment to which we are used. We were all supposed to board so all the boarding facilities were provided we were required to take only our personal effects. The training methods used were lectures with demonstration and discussion as the trainers were interested in creating harmonious relationship with us that would enhance the learning experience.

            The training achieved its objectives as we were given insightful idea on how to improve our performance. According to (Lloyd, 2016) one can tell the success of a training program based on the trainers’ enthusiasm on practicing what they have learnt in real life. We were eager to get back to our office and exercise what we had just learnt and there was a general well-being among the employees as a result of the success of the training program. Notably, there was an improved morale among us that was paramount to the working relationships at the workplace as we were now aware of what was expected of us. The training site was appropriate for training as it was far away from the usual working environment. The fact that the training program required the employees to board ensured there are numerous working relationship smoothened throughout the program which would improve the professional relationships. Additionally, the training site was designed to suit the training requirements of the program. The trainers on the other hand were prepared for the training program as they were well equipped with all the necessary requirements to allow them to effectively train a group of employees for a certain period of time.

            As earlier stated, the training methods chosen were demonstration with discussion. The trainer would demonstrate what they were training and later include everybody into the discussion of what they have just demonstrated. The method was appropriate as the employees were the first contact the company had with the clients and therefore demonstration of what they were supposed to do. Demonstration and discussion is a training strategy that pushes the trainers to practically show the trainees what they are supposed to do and later get involved in a question and answer session that would later lead to a discussion (Stonehem, 2013). Throughout the program the trainers gave us feedback on the activities we took part in as they had designed several tests that we would partake in to ensure we understood what we were taught. Feedback according to (Loewy, 2012) is an effective method that gives the trainer a deeper understanding of where their training is not understood as well as showing the trainees where they need to improve. Additionally, training allows the trainer and the trainee to interact on a different level that increases the learning experiences and enhances positive results; interestingly, the feedback was meant to connect us with the actual issue on the ground.

            One of the training theories used throughout the training was the Behaviorist Theory. The theory is based on the belief the trainee is passive and relies entirely on the in-put of the trainer. Wendleton (2013) argues that the behaviorist theory creates a situation where the trainer becomes the teacher and the trainee the students with several questions asked where issues are not clear. Through the behaviorist theory, it is the responsibility of the trainer to ensure the trainee is exposed to as much information and learning as possible which will be given through positive or negative reinforcement. To ensure there is maximum learning the trainer uses memorization and testing assignments that are designed to suit the training and improve the training experience. Lim (2011) is of the idea that testing increases the learning process as both the trainer and the trainee have a clear picture of which part of the training that needs more effort. Since the behaviorist theory focus on the behaviors of both the trainer and the trainee, how they behave towards each other is a paramount aspect that determines the success of the trainee. It is in this sense that during the training we listened and followed what the trainers instructed.

            The second training theory used was the Social Learning Theory. The theory states that behavioral learning is done through the environment and observation (Bratton & Gold, 2012). The Social Learning Theory was suitable for the training as the trainers were basing their training on example and expecting us to learn through observation and following what they were demonstrating. Additionally, the theory is based on social learning where individuals learn from each other as they interact throughout the training; the training gathering was a social event that had brought together individuals with different personalities which improved the learning processes and assisted in social networking. The Social Learning Theory allows the trainee to ask questions to increase the understanding of the tasks at hand, through the theory, the trainee is supposed to show the trainee how to carry out some tasks (DeCenzo et al, 2016).The theory states that for the training to be effective the trainee has to have an opportunity of doing ‘it’ themselves. Through this way the trainer will able to tell where the trainee is going wrong and correct them. In our training, the trainers insisted on good customer care and suggested that a warm smile and direct eye contact with the client is paramount for creating a good rapport between the client and the employee. Additionally, the trainer showed us how to introduce ourselves in a way the client is able to share some of their details such as their name which is important in creating a relationship that is on a first name basis that is paramount in cementing the clients’ loyalty to the business.

            The trainers demonstrated high levels of competencies in the sense that they had great learning skills that allowed them to learn from us as well. Listening skills according to Searle & Skinner (2011) is an important part of communication which ensures a training project is effective. A deeper analysis of the situation indicates that the trainers were quite experienced in the sense that they considered all in-puts from the trainees and allowed us to ask questions without the fear of interrupting the training process. The trainers were knowledgeable as they were able to provide us with insightful ideas on how to effectively handle clients and cement their loyalty to the business organization. Being knowledgeable as a trainer is essential in creating a learning environment that leads to faster learning (Lloyd, 2016). The exposure we got from the trainers gave us the confidence of being better employees to our company as the trainers were able to pass down their knowledge on the issue onto us making the training successful. The trainers were also skillful in their attempt of training us into becoming better employees. For instance, they were quite patient with us when we asked questions that would seem out of the topic for them. They made us feel part of the training family irrespective of how unskilled we seemed in front of them; there was never a time they made us feel less important and were treated equally regardless of our obvious inexperience.

            In general, the training was successful and there were no relapses. Actually, the trainers did a great job that gave us ample opportunities of practicing what we have learnt. Personally, I developed confidence in my abilities of being a good employee and serving the company and offer my best services. I was eager to practice what I learnt in my job and I could see obvious positive results at work. For instance during the training we were taught that when you greet a client with a smile they are bound to smile back at you. Even if the client was just making enquiries and not making any purchases, the rapport created at the time will ensure they come back for the services as the service was warm. I was confidence that my performance would improve as I would make more sales and attract more clients to the company which would improve the company’s profit margin in the end. Considering that the company was in the service industry, the front service is required to be of the highest quality in order to create and build a good reputation; reputation is a valuable intangible asset for any business organization. In addition, there are aspects of the service provision that require individual attention to increase the performance, such as clients who have been in loyal to the company and make use of the company to transit goo

A Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) is a form that describes the specific responsibilities individuals have in a project. Through the RAM project managers can easily keep track of the project through assessment of the individual production in the project.

One of the benefits of developing a RAM is it describes clearly who is responsible for what.  According to Blokdyk (2018) a project consists of different departments that handle different aspects. Usually, the departments are connected and rely on each other for the successful completion of the project. However, the intricate details of the department are totally different from each other necessitating the need to assign different individuals. In the end, the general manager is tasked with the responsibility of ensuring that all the departments are productive and are working within the budget and timetable. It is in this instance that developing a RAM becomes essential to the completion of the project.

Interestingly, RAM consolidates all individuals with authority in the project and demands that they ask for accountability from people working under them (Springer, 2016). The various departments in a project have heads who have the mandate to show accountability of the department’s participation in the success of the project. The accountability from the various departments gives the general contractor an opportunity of updating the owner of the project on the accurate progress of the project. Through this way, all the individuals involved in the completion of the project have peace of mind and can focus on other pressing matters.

Consultation throughout the project according to Stackpole (2013) is a crucial aspect as it gives the right people an opportunity of acquiring information. When developing an RAM, people with specific information and skills are skilled to appropriate department. Additionally, such individuals are given leadership positions that allow them to give advice and consultation throughout the project. Through consultations individuals can acquire insights from different individuals on matters affecting the project which will have positive effects on the timely completion of the project.

Another benefit of developing an RAM is its ability of establishing whether or not an individual is assigned with too many responsibilities (Portny, 2017). A deep analysis of the situation indicates that in a project there are chances in a project a certain departmental manager might take on too many tasks. Such a situation occurs when there are few managers in project; in the process, this case might reduce the efficiency of department and thus negatively affect the project in general. Therefore with an RAM a manager can have information on who is tasked with too much responsibility and thus distribute the tasks evenly among the available managers.

Through an RAM there is a clear indication of one’s responsibilities, accountability, and reporting. Blokdyk (2018) notes that with such issues sorted, there is less confusion caused human error. The reduction of human error in the project improves the efficiency of the project. Springer (2016) also notes that human error is an issue that has the potential of derailing projects. The fact that a majority of projects rely of human capital for completion makes the situation precarious. Therefore it is of utmost importance to utilize strategies that might reduce its occurrence by a large margin. However, for the RAM to be effective in such a manner its developmental stage requires keen analysis.

Stackpole (2013) argues that communication is one of the most important aspects of a successful project. The existence of numerous departments in a single project requires high levels of communication meant to enhance smooth progress. The managers have to be in constant communication to ensure they complete all their projects in unison. Therefore, with the development of an RAM, communication among the managers becomes easier. However, in the RAM, there has to be specifications on method of communication and the process follow. Additionally, the people involved have to be aware of the communication methods to ensure everybody is aware of what to do in case they need certain information.

Admittedly, when people are aware of what is expected of them in addition to having communication methods in place, there will be less need to have meetings. Irrespective of meetings being essential for the smooth progress of the project, Portny (2017) states that they could be distracting. Requiring people to attend meetings takes them away from their projects which might interfere with their overall performance under a timetable. Therefore, with fewer meetings and interaction, the project runs smoothly as people through the RAM are aware of their responsibilities. Smooth communication in the project gives people more time to focus on their responsibilities. More so, RAM provides an opportunity for the operations manager to have a critical analysis of the performance and production of the teams (Springer, 2016). Through the RAM the contractor follows up on the project easily as they have all the required information. With such an understanding the contractor can note any departments derailing and take corrective measures immediately. In the process, the project faces fewer challenges and is completed on time.

Ultimately, RAM is an essential tool in the successful completion of projects in the sense that it creates an ample opportunity through which the managers work together. In addition to increasing efficiency and speed of the project, the RAM plays a significant role in providing communication methods that give people more time to focus on their responsibilities. Additionally, through the RAM it is easy for the general manager to note a department that is lagging behind and promptly take appropriate action.

I have ambitions of one day becoming a senior HR recruiter in healthcare. I am also planning on becoming a Talent Acquisition Specialist (TAS) in two years in which I will have the opportunity of hiring people in junior positions. In the next five years, I am hoping to become a senior officer in the same capacity that will boost my career, increase my income and allow me to have the pleasure of working in career in which I am passionate. Human Resource in the healthcare industry is a position that requires individual who are committed, passionate, and hardworking (Collahan, 2012). Measuring my objectives will follow a certain protocol by first by assessing whether or not the set goals are practical, additionally, the objectives must be within a timeline that is flexible enough to suit my educational, professional, and personal life.

            In order to prevent my academic life from interfering with my personal life I will have to seek time management skills. Gannesby (2013) notes that with efficient time management skills, an individual has better control of the intricate balance between work, school, and a personal life; which increases the rates of success in life. The trends on the workplace that I need to be aware of is the demands of the profession. Considering that I will be the connection between the healthcare institution and the clients I am required to have high communication skills. Economically, the salaries and benefits I get from the jot will be of great importance as in most instances finances are a motivator. The profession is quite marketable especially is an individual is highly qualified; in this sense I am quite suited for the career as I have the academic requirements.

            There are numerous skills and competencies that are critical and required to achieve success is hard work, integrity and passion. Communication skills are paramount in the career as they ensure there is smooth communication between the health care institution and its clients; as the connection I am supposed to represent both parties professionally without personal interference. In addition, working hard with integrity is an essential competency that leads to individuals handling their responsibilities with minimum responsibilities (Hepworth, 2010). Therefore, possessing such competencies will lead to high chances of reaching my goals and ambitions in a timely manner.

            If I decide to take a different career path, the skills that I possess and are transferable are communication skills, hard work with integrity. A majority of professions according to Molicani (2014) require communication skills as they are in need of clients and investors. It is in this sense that I have perfected my communication skills as they are required and applicable in a majority of professions. Admittedly, there are times when I feel incompetent in my profession which has led me into taking short courses, seminar, and read self-help books to increase my efficiency.

            Throughout my professional life I have learnt that listening is an important aspect of communication. There are instances where individual fail to listen to each other which lays the foundations for conflicts (Rothwell, 2010). Fortunately, I have come to appreciate the importance of great listening skills as they improve the relationships between the involved parties. It is through such skills that I am confident about my future plans. Additionally, my passion for the job has ensured that I do my job irrespective of the circumstances and I am accountable for my actions as integrity is one of my competencies.

            I need a degree in human resource and a master’s degree in human resource management as they will give me an upper hand in achieving my goals. The training and academic learning I have acquired while studying for my degrees have ensured I have developed a critical thought that is essential I developing my career. Cleaver (2012) argues that academic qualifications play an important role in career development as they give an individual a new way of planning for the future. Academic qualifications have the potential of individuals furthering their education or taking other courses.

            Participating in a professional association would be helpful as I would be exposed to new learning experience that improves my experience. Smith (2011) suggests that a professional benefit immensely from professional association as there is increased networking especially in this century where communication has taken the internet platform. Interestingly, a professional association will bring closer people with similar interests which will lead to friendships that might last a lifetime. The participation in the professional association will lead to constructive criticism that will improve my ability to offer better services.

             A mentor is an important individual as they will provide individuals with vast amounts of experience who will play the role of a guide. Through having a mentor I will have the opportunity of having a reliable individual to assist me when I am struggling in my profession. Mentors provide critical assistance especially in technical courses (Callahan, 2012); fortunately, my professional is both technical and theoretical and thus a mentor will be of utmost importance. An individual can play the role of a mentor for a short period of time and therefore the mentorship program would not be costly to the stakeholders.

            There are several attributes that ensures employees are satisfied with their jobs and thus have high motivation levels which is paramount to production (Gannesby, 2013). Compensation and benefits are some of the job satisfaction attributes that increase the employees’ motivation and job satisfaction. Research and studies have indicated that numerous people are in careers because of the monetary benefits. It is in this sense that compensation should be part and parcel of any employment. The benefits on the other hand might include; paid leaves, vacations, and health insurances.

            A majority of workplaces consist of individuals with various personalities and temperaments. It is this mentality that increases the importance of having conflict resolution measures (Rothwell, 2010). As an attribute to increase job satisfaction, conflict resolution measures increase the confidence of the employees as they are aware there is a stipulated way of handling conflicts. With such measures in place, the relationships among the employees as well as between the employees and the management team are harmonious; harmonious working relationships are of the essence with regards to workplace performance.

            There are several leadership styles that are used in workplaces depending on issues such as the industry and the goals of the organization. Therefore, if the management team is utilizing a leadership style that does not suit with a majority of the employees their job satisfaction levels will be low (Smith, 2011). For instance if the leadership style in use is non-democratic where the employees are not allowed to participate in the decision making processes, their job satisfaction levels will be low. The employees should be made to feel like part of the family through interactive decision making process even though the leader holds the responsibility of making the final decision.

            There are also work environment that play a major role in job satisfaction and one of them is recognition of hard work. Human beings thrive on appreciation and love towards their careers (Cleaver, 2012). It is therefore paramount for the employers to seek ways through which to appreciate the work of their employees; for instance, the could have an award for the ‘employee of the month’ who gets recognition as well as other benefits that come with the title. Through this way, the employees will improve their performance as they compete for the title and increase their job satisfaction levels along the way.

            Another way employers can improve the job satisfaction levels of their employees through suitable working environment is by making them feel part of the team. Allowing the members to actively get involved in the business matters of the organization will make them develop a feeling of ownership and thus increase their accountability and responsibility. Additionally, the team spirit generated from taking part in business matters is crucial to the management having a deeper understanding of the employees and therefore will have a better chance of making better informed decisions with regards to the employees. Apart from harmonious relationship from the team spirit, the employees will be motivated and therefore focus on their performance which is of the utmost importance to the success of the business organization in general.








Emotional labor refers to the visualization of an expectation in service delivery, mainly in scenarios where there is a direct encounter between the service provider and the consumer. Emotional labor generally occurs through acts, which may be physical or deep, and may also include a genuine feeling. Emotional labor influences performance in organizations and such tasks act as a critical component of the performance index that an individual has. Through this, an aspect of self-expression is met, even though factors such as estrangement and consumer dissatisfaction may be experienced. Some theories have tried to prove how emotional labor acts as a restorative to an individual’s performance pressure, while others try and relate emotional labor and the social life (Wetherell, 2012).

The concept that this paper employs revolves around previous researcher’s information and will try and take a review of this literature. Additionally, information gathered from the primary source, that is, by the use of interviews, will be discussed and conclusions drawn from the findings. Furthermore, any underlying measures that the management undertakes in trying to control emotional labor in the workplace will be defined and discussed. As a final point, the paper will address all possible solutions that are available and are aimed at reducing the risks associated with emotional labor.

Emotional Labor: Stress in the Workplace

Hochschild defines emotional labor as the process of managing emotions, through surface, deep or genuine acts, following specific guidelines set by organizations ("Emotional labor," 2019). In return, the individual responsible for the surface or deep acting is compensated through wages. Usually, the task assigned or performance strategies laid affect the service execution in the said organizations. According to Hochschild, emotional labor also is categorized into different parameters, which include the body, cognitive as well as expressive emotions. In the cognitive parameter, Hochschild explains how individuals try to transform any visual image available as well as ideas in their minds, which helps change the general feeling that images bring to them. An instance is one carrying a family portrait to their workplace, which acts as a motivation and a source of happiness.

            The bodily parameter, on the other hand, an individual may try and change their physical reactions to achieve and show a particular emotion. Such a physical response may include taking a deep breath which acts as a preventive measure to anger. On the other hand, expressive emotional parameter works where individuals try to change some non-verbal cues such as gestures, which in return act as a control mechanism to their feelings. Such cases involve trying to smile in the workplace, which also triggers happiness. When an employee’s feelings fail to reach what the organization has set as the requirements, then they are forced to comply with the emotional regulations set, which brings about the different parameters in emotional labor.

The Role of Emotional Labor in Workplaces.

            In the industrial market, some organizations are set up to offer services to consumers, such as hotel industry and hospitality, delivery of goods on a door to door service, as well as facilities that provide haircuts. With such requirements, then the gender factor usually come in, where all tasks requiring interactive work end up being assigned to the female gender (Erickson & Ritter, 2001).  In these organizations, there are the set rules that the various employees are mandated to conform to and control their overall behavior. The basic requirement and need to regulate one's emotions and visual display is mainly subjected to achieving the organizational goals. Therefore, the set emotional regulations are on purpose to ensure that feelings that the employees express to the customers are predefined. The display and behavioral change are intended to achieve a goal, which is mainly set in the work plan and objectives to meet. Hochschild also gave a case scenario of flight attendants, who are expected to retain a smiling face, and an overall laughing mood, which is part of the organizational policy and is aimed at ensuring that the mood in the flight is cheerful (Hochschild, 2008).

Appropriate Emotional Labor in Organizations.

Emotional labor is usually based on situations; as previous researchers have shown that there has been a transition from influence to the current state of situational happenings. The conditions in concern could vary from the duration of effect, as well as some job variables, as customer handling changes with this. There is a manner through which individuals could be categorized to specific dimensions, which could aid in helping one predict how they behave under certain circumstances.

Hochschild’s research showed that for best performance in emotional labor, then there are the possible mechanisms which could allow a proper implementation, and included; genuine performance, deep acting as well as surface acting (Hochschild, 1983). Each device had its influence.

Surface Acting

Hochschild’s definition showed that an employee might conform to organizational rules in regards to emotional labor through surface acting, which mainly includes showing emotions that are not felt. They may consist of the use of facial expressions, tonal variations as well as the use of gestures (Hochschild, 1983). Surface acting is a commonly used technique especially by flight attendants as they usually visualize what they are not feeling.

Deep Acting

Deep acting, on the other hand, entails an individual trying to have the real experience of the set emotions in the workplace. It involves a direct induction of the real feeling and commonly used in acts and plays. Similarly, flight attendants may use the same predicament to control their emotions, as explained by Hochschild; “Don’t let him get to you…And I’ll talk to my partner, and she’ll say the same thing to me. After a while, the anger goes away” (Hochschild, 1983, p.55). Deep acting, therefore, is a full contradiction of surface acting, as it involves induction of the actual feelings.

Genuine Acting

            Genuine acting, on the other hand, involves a real consideration of the consumer’s feelings, without any induction being involved. Such an instance may include a bartender trying to console a customer suffering from depression. Also, in the medical fraternity, nurses and doctors may feel a patient’s pain, and may not necessarily need to induce the feeling. Genuine acting, therefore, applies in cases where the employees get to experience a similar feeling and emotions like the one in the customer’s mind (Chu, Baker & Murrmann, 2012).

Significance of Emotional Labor.

            Emotional labor is known to act as a facilitator in regards to effective organizational performance, as it creates a regulatory feature that helps in tackling and prohibiting any arising personal issues in the workforce. Issues such as accountability, task effectiveness, and efficiency are met through emotional labor. Additionally, for the employee, the rewards gotten from such emotional labor experiences include wages and salaries, which stands out as a positive impact on their lifestyles. However, emotional labor can as well delimit organizational performance by setting up expectations that could fail to be met. Most literature proposes that emotional labor has an impact on the psychological well-being of an individual (Hochschild, 1983).   


                While trying to strengthen our research in response to emotional labor in the workplace, we conducted an open-ended questionnaire interview on how individuals found it satisfying in their workplaces, as well as whether they were mandated to act in any manner to ensure that consumer satisfaction is met. The survey was done in different workplace settings, and through the help of friends, we were able to interview call center representatives, supermarket attendants, several receptionists, who hailed from different workplaces. The questionnaire presented was open-ended, and an assurance of confidentiality was granted before filling in the report. Additionally, oral questions were given, and the questionnaire filled manually.

            From the analysis and the setting used, all our interviewees responded to the questions, and an extra assurance that their privacy was of concern made the process smoother. All departments involved had a different number of respondents, and we had to ensure that the aspect of gender neutrality was included too. However, one of the main concerns that we did observe was the ratio of males to females in the organizations, which proved to be low. From the findings of the interview, it was found out that we did find out that there was an average job satisfaction in the interviewees, most of whom placed a key concern on the flexibility in the workplace in terms of working hours and shifts. Additionally, all the interviewees were satisfied with the working env

Date: 27th January, 2010         By: Essay Grads help      Topic: Ethics and Decision Making

Ethics is the study of principles relating to right or wrong conduct. There are usually standards that guide a person’s conduct especially, in a certain profession. Decision making is usually a process of selecting a course of action among many alternatives. Ethics and decision making in an organization usually go hand-in-hand. This is because decision making is a process that involves interactions with other employees, board managers, the public and others. It is also influenced by how we personally perceive a situation, our insights, and our past experiences. For better and successful decision making, we need to use our personal ethics and insights.

In an organization, the best and important decisions are usually made not by an individual only but usually by a group of individuals. If for example, you are a leader of a certain group in an organization, you will constantly be faced by a situation that needs a solution and hence you have to deduce the strengths of each member to make better decisions. Good decisions are usually made by well-informed groups and this is where the principles of group decision-making model emerge. There are seven steps involved in the decision-making model:

  • Identifying the problem to be solved.
  • Gathering relevant information.
  • Generating alternatives.
  • Analyze and weigh the evidence that you have.
  • Choose the best alternative.
  • Implement the chosen alternative.
  • Review the decision made and its results.

Ethics come in hand as in every step of the decision-making process an ethical decision has to be made. Ethics helps to properly define a situation (Armstrong, C. (2013). For example, a manager of a certain organization was involved in bad conduct where he was accused harassing the employees, giving wrong and misleading information to the shareholders and misusing the funds of the organization. Depending on how this situation is defined then different solutions will arise. For example, absolutists viewed this situation as morally and extremely wrong and were focused on how to punish the manager while the situationists were concerned with safeguarding the organization's reputation first and ensuring the business runs effectively as usual and then later dealing with the manager. In this case, an ethical decision was required. What is best for this organization? Safeguarding the organization's reputation first then dealing with the manager later was the best solution according to ethical decision making (Ethics in Managerial Decision-making. (n.d.).

Ethics helps define a situation and then make a proper and wise decision that is for the benefit of an individual or organizational goals and this makes the society a better place.  



Date:                                                                          Topic: Globalization and Strategy

                  Globalization is a process of going into a more interconnected world. It is a situation where national boundaries become less relevant to business decisions. A strategy is usually a plan of action that is designed to help achieve a long-term goal. The world today has become a small village and businesses are seeking to expand their operations all over the globe in an effort to maximize profits by reaping from economies of scale. Businesses will expand their operations globally by formulating certain strategies and more importantly by adopting a global strategy. A global strategy for a business acts like a guide to globalization. It is the procedure that a company uses when it wants to expand its operations and compete in the global market. Formulating a strategy usually involves conducting a SWOT analysis first.

  • Strengths – a business identifies first its strengths. For example, proper connectivity that is, innovation needed for globalization. i.e. good laptops or cell phones to facilitate the proper flow of information.
  • Weaknesses – globalization will help a company reap large economies of scale but the company has to identify its weaknesses for example, whether it is well equipped to deal with online fraud.
  • Opportunities – a business has to identify any gaps in the global market and this is where it can generate its opportunities.
  • Threats – these are the dangers that a company will be faced with.

Companies such as Google have had to come up with a SWOT analysis in their process of globalization.

               A strategy is important in executing a business's path to success. Most businesses want to venture into businesses where there is so much money (Globalization And Hr Strategy. (2014). This requires competitiveness. Expanding into these markets with large amounts of money is known as globalization. Globalization and competitiveness all depend in a great way on the formulated strategy that a business has chosen. Most businesses use the slogan of “go global act local” as a strategy in their expansion. These strategies include:

  • Adding local flavor- consumer tastes and preferences are different. To increase its competition, Domino's pizza in Asia uses seafood as toppings and in India it uses curry.
  • Understanding the cultural backgrounds of customers. For example, Colgate toothpaste brand Cue did not do well in France as it was the name of a pornographic magazine.
  • Joint venture. Tieing up with a local partner is an added advantage for a company.

Strategies for a business may vary and business should choose the best strategy for its goods or services to help improve its global expansion.

Date:                                                                                                   Topic: Diversity

                Diversity basically means consisting of many different elements that are unlike, distinct and separate. Diversity occurs in many sectors of life especially in the workplace that is, in organizations today (Human resource management and diversity. (2010). It promotes respect and acceptance despite differences in race, language,  and other beliefs. Diversity in an organization has been viewed as a factor that can benefit a company greatly. A diverse workforce allows companies to have a competitive advantage as companies strive to become increasingly global. It also helps a company in identifying new opportunities and trends by having a workforce that represents most of its customers. This increases the productivity of the workforce by establishing an environment that values diversity and is inclusive (Inkpen, A., & Ramaswamy, K. (2005).

               It is the manager’s responsibility to ensure that his or her workers are well protected despite their differences. However, diversity in the workplace has experienced some challenges. Many workers in multinational companies have complained of facing some issues based on their differences. These issues include:

  • Accommodation of beliefs – different employees have different cultural, political and spiritual beliefs. Some workers find it difficult to accommodate workers with certain beliefs which may destroy the teamwork spirit needed in an organization.
  • Ethnic and cultural differences - A research by the New York Times indicates that people with African-American sounding names are 14% less likely to get a job.
  • Physical and mental disabilities – most disabled employees have a rough time at the workplace because of lack of proper equipment such as wheelchair ramps.
  • Sexual harassment- sexual harassment in the workplace has been reported to be of two types. the hostile environment that does not favor the health of all workers. Workers faced with this have the right to sue the organization. Sexual harassment can involve employees, agents, clients, managers, and even contractors and it can happen at work or between employees outside the work environment. A colleague named Nikita was contracted by an agency to fill a reception role with a tech company. During her one week placement, she was sexually harassed by a company's employee. Nikita though not employed was covered by the law.


While responding to a post concerning the liquidity of Bear Stearns (Cramer, 2013). Cramer explained that Bear Stearns was beautiful and they should not be worried about its cash and therefore, should not take their money out of the organization (Cramer, 2013). Surprisingly, the stock later collapsed (Cramer, 2013). Consequently, it was misleading information for the shareholders who watched the video and heeded to the advice of Cramer.

Bear Stearns is an investment bank situated in NYC that collapsed in 2008 during the subprime mortgage crisis. The company had survived much stock market crash since it was founded. As a result, it grew and spread worldwide (Cramer, 2013). Risk takers as well and competent management, in their view, saw that it was wise to invest in the company as it continued growing with the global economy. Despite being one of the most significant investments that thrived after surviving the Great Depression, it became a player in the meltdown of the mortgage as well as the Great Recession that followed.

Bear Stearns operated many financial services, which among them was hedge funds that used the profit the firm using securitized debt markets. In the year 2007, the firm fell out of housing market, and it became to the realization of the company that the hedge fund strategies were becoming risky that it was believed originally (Cramer, 2013). The company tried to save itself out of this crisis, but they realize that their effort could not better the situation. The company later incurred massive losses that made it be bailed out internationally.

Therefore, Cramer’s message was misleading, as the ways the firm was operating was not well analyzed to determine the stability of the company in the future (Cramer, 2013). Those who had invested their money in the bank could have, therefore get an early warning to take out their funds from the system (Cramer, 2013). Cramer could have, consequently done proper analysis before making a misleading comment.

Lessons from the Father of Modern Portfolio Theory


Concerning the twists as well as turns of the stock market, Erick Schurenberg, the editorial director of, interviewed Nobel, Laureate Markowitz about the issue (Markowitz, 2009). The interview was explicitly about the mistakes, which small investigators make in their reports (Markowitz, 2009). Besides, it includes the best way to diversify and the significance of comprehending a stock’s beta.

Harry Markowitz is a Nobel Prize winner of Modern Portfolio Theory. His formula, which was tested during the 2008 Great Recession (Markowitz, 2009). During this period, the stock market plunged by almost forty percent. Consequently, the money markets froze up. As a result, many banks had to be bailed out while the ones like Bear Stearns collapsed.

In the interview, Markowitz stressed that Portfolio Theory does not fail during a financial crisis (Markowitz, 2009). He explained this point by saying during that time; all asset classes go down while correlations rise. Markowitz explained that the levels of an asset are almost proportional to their historical betas (Markowitz, 2009). For instance, the S and P of five hundred has a beta value of one. Therefore, a stock fund with a beta amount more significant than one is likely to lose more cash the period where there is declination of the market than a stock that has the benefit of beta less than one (Markowitz, 2009). Markowitz continued by explaining that the portfolio administrators that limited risks of their companies in 2008 recession kept some shares in US Treasury bonds (Markowitz, 2009). Regardless of plunging of corporate bonds and stocks, such investments performed excellently.

According to the text, the work of Markowitz is to make the best returns by employing the least amount of risk out of many asset classes (Markowitz, 2009). The theory analyzes correlation, together with diversification that is expected in portfolio returns and the effects of assets risk (Markowitz, 2009). According to Markowitz, it all relies on how one splits their investment pie.

There are no Shortcuts in Investing: Nobel Laureate William Sharpe

The video is about the interview between Nobel Laureate William F. Sharpe and an interviewer, Paul Costello, from Stanford Graduate School of Business (Sharpe, 2010). Sharpe’s main point in the interview is that if one wants to obtain easy answers on concerning the financial crisis as well as filling the holes in a portfolio, an individual should use other sources than to watch the economic guru of late or read sure-thing investing books.

According to Sharpe, taking significant financial risks may lead to big financial gains or lead to a person's failure (Sharpe, 2010). The theory that expands investment funds results in better profits in the end as compared to the riskier targeted funds (Sharpe, 2010). During the interview, Sharpe explained that investors should be cautious of financial experts. However, during the meeting, he did not suggest to the listeners the fresh advice on how to deal with and eliminate the financial crisis that was there by then as well as filling the holes in their portfolios (Sharpe, 2010). Instead, he explained it a waste of time to watch the current financial guru like Jim Cramer, to obtain easy answers.

Sharpe said that having different investors contributing an unusual amount of cash, some of them large amounts while some smaller there will be no possibilities of one gaining massive returns (Sharpe, 2010). The risk of the individual investor is diversified since they are taking different risks (Sharpe, 2010). Concerning the financial crisis, Sharpe agrees with Nobel economist Krugman on his point that the situation that the world was in was caused by who took a lot of risks, they became wealthy, and during the recession, they bail out.

He continued by saying that when one wants to invest, an individual should base their decision by looking forward and not backward (Sharpe, 2010). It is because, what happened in the past will not necessarily occur in the future (Sharpe, 2010). Concerning global warming, Sharpe insisted that polluters should pay heavy taxes.










Today, type 2 diabetes is one of the killer disease terminating several lives across the globe. It typically comes as a result of the body either failing to use insulin to breakdown glucose in the blood or pancreases secreting insufficient insulin to assist the body breakdown glucose and starch.  In either case, breakdown glucose in the blood stream is disrupted thereby causing blood sugar levels to rise. Majorly, this condition is caused by poor eating habit, lack of exercise and polycystic ovarian infection in women. For that very reason, various treatment options have always been used to either stimulate pancreas to release more insulin or breakdown fats and calories in the blood stream. At present, there is no exact treatment for this condition. But doing regular exercise, eating healthy foods, using diabetes medication, administering insulin therapy and monitoring blood sugar levels has proven positive in patients with this condition (Marín-Peñalver, 2016). In this light, the paper discusses how each option works in managing type 2 symptoms.

According to a report by MFMER (2019), eating healthy foods is defined to be the most effective option for managing type 2 diabetes.  It simply means taking foods rich in fiber in moderate amounts as well as sticking to specific mealtimes. Example of foods rich in fiber include parts of plants which the body cannot digesting. In most cases, fiber is taken alongside other meals such as beans and oats to reduce their digestion. In other words, fiber is not digestible in the human’s body. Instead, it goes through stomach to the small intestine to the colon and finally out through the anus. Healthy diet, especially use of foods with high fiber contents in right amounts is good in reducing amount of glucose in the blood stream (MFMER, 2019). Because food passes through the digestive tract without being digested to completion. Thus reducing the chances of more glucose accumulating into blood stream to the point of causing the disorder. 

Another management option that works similar to eating healthy food is regular exercise. Exercise enables the body burn down fat and calories that might have accumulated in the blood stream. Mostly, people suffering from type 2 diabetes have too much glucose in their blood streams, either because glucose level is not controlled or pancreas is not stimulated to release enough insulin. In either case, exercise works effectively in reducing the amount of glucose in the blood stream (Marín-Peñalver, 2016). While doing exercise the body will demand for energy to support muscular movements such as stretching and relaxation of the joints. In which more of the glucose in the blood stream is the first source of energy. The glucose are broken down through the process of aerobic respiration to release energy in the form of ATP which can be easily absorbed into the muscles. In so doing, glucose in the blood stream is eliminated thus lowering the possibility of blood sugar levels increasing from normal rate to higher rates.

For effectiveness, eating healthy foods exercising regularly works much better when combined with diabetic medications that entails a wide range of drugs, administered orally or by injection, to stimulate insulin so it breaks down glucose. Some of these drugs include SGLT2 inhibitors, DPP-4 inhibiters and meglinitides, The SGLT2 inhibitors includes dapagliflozin, caagliflozin and empaglifozin; and they block kidney from absorbing sugar into the blood. Functionally, the kidney filters blood before sending it back to the heart.  In using the SGLT2 inhibitors, kidney gets blocked from filtering blood to enable sugar and waste pass out through the urine. In so doing, accumulation of glucose is tampered with such that most of the glucose comes out of the system in the urine. The DPP-4 inhibitors consist of oral hypoglycemic that works by blocking dipeptidyl prptidase-4 from destroying the hormone incretin.  Functionally, Incretins assists the body produce additional insulin when needed as well as decrease glucose coming from the liver when not needed. Therefore the DPP-4 inhibitors assists the body to either produce more insulin or decrease amount of glucose produce from the liver. In both cases, glucose is eliminated from the system thus reducing its accumulation in the blood stream (MFMER, 2019).

.           However, there are cases when proper dieting, physical exercise and other medications may fail to reduce the symptoms of type 2 diabetes. For instance, muscular complications in patients to the extent that absorption of regular human insulin becomes very slow. In such a case, there is need to introduce an artificial insulin into the body system through injection or by using an insulin pen (AAFP, 2018). The aim of introducing insulin is to maintain the blood sugar levels in a standard range as much as possible. In so doing, the body gets additional insulin that works directly on the blood surface to breakdown the accumulated glucose in the blood. In other word, the artificial insulin lowers the concentration of glucose just like the normal insulin produced in the pancreas. There are four types of artificial insulin dependent on their speed of action. The first set is rapid acting insulin such as insulin lispro, insulin glulisine and insulin aspart. They usually start working in about 15 minutes from the time they are taken and lasts for about 3-5 hours. The second set include short-acting insulin such as regular insulin. They often start working in about a half an hour to an hour from the time they are taken and can last for about 5-8 hours. The third set is intermediate-acting insulin such as insulin NHP and usually takes about 1-3 hours to start working. They are powerful and can last for about 12-16 hours. The fourth set is long-acting insulin such as insulin detemir and insulin glargine. In most cases, they take about 1 hour to start working and can last for about 20-26 hours. (AAFP, 2018)

            On balance, type 2 diabetes is a killer disease in today’s society caused by poor eating habits as well as lack of exercise. Although no exact medication has been established for this condition, several options has been used in the past and proven positive in minimizing symptoms related to type 2 diabetes. Among them are healthy eating, regular exercise, medications and insulin therapy. Regular exercise, healthy eating and medication use each works differently in helping the patient cope up with the disease in reducing symptoms associated with this condition. However, in complicated cases where reducing the glucose levels does not bring about any positive impact; insulin therapy is introduced. In which an artificial insulin is injected or adminstred into the body system to help control blood sugar levels.