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Tribalism and racism are key issues in the history of ancient Greece. As such, various philosophers have tried to decipher the two concepts, including Max Weber and Alexander the Great (Lefkaditou 329). Racism, in previous years is not the same as racism today as the definition is quite altered. Also, in ancient Greece, racism was not based on skin color as this variable is attributed to climatic conditions and the general environment. On the tribal basis, some ethnic groups were considered superior than others based on features such as technological study of the universe and advancement in education. Also, Greeks disregarded Africans, and termed them as a primitive race. This paper examines the role of tribalism and racism in ancient Greece.

Tribalism is a more cohesive concept that can be used as a basis of isolation. The isolation cannot be effortlessly traced due to the complexities of the ancient Greek. However, an instance is explained where pure Greeks considered Macedonians as their equals since they both originated from the famous Heralces (Strickland). The recognition earned the Macedonians a chance to take part in the Olympian Games which were exclusive for Hellenists. On the contrary, another instance shows the two Greek states of Sparta and Athens. Even though both were Hellenistic, Sparta had an oligarchy while Athens had a democratic system. These differences led to the Peloponessian War between the States. From the context, tribalism is seen to have caused both positive and negative impacts in ancient Greece.

Geographical disparities was a major issue regarding tribalism in ancient Greece. An instance is the case of Ptolemy and Pericles. The Ptolemy’s citizenship law allowed an individual citizenship if one had a Greek father and a mother from any other nation. On the other hand, Pericle’s law only regarded an individual as a Greek citizen if one had both Greek parents (Gilje). The Ptolemic law led to the dilution of the culture and original Greek language. The disparity became a channel of debate with famous philosophers including Aristotle criticizing the Ptolemy’s law as a betrayal of the originality of Greek citizens. The different views from different sides led to a cultural mishap in ancient Greece.

In addition, ancient Greece victimized other tribes (barbarians) according to their biological and cultural traits. The Greeks considered them as national slaves who had a defect in their cultural system. Aristotle posed a challenge to this view since on the side of the barbarians, they also have a right to regard their culture a superior and refer to the Greeks as backward (Strickland). Another basis used to degrade other cultures is technological and educational advancements. Being the most advanced state, ancient Greece considered other cultures and tribes as inferior and concluded that they needed a ‘master’ to watch over them. Greeks also conflicted with outsiders who were mandated to perform essential functions which conflicted with their belief system.

The ancient Greek definition of racism was upheld during the archaic period. It is slightly different from the modern perspective that came to use in the mid-18th Century. With less regard to skin color, racism was attributed to climatic conditions (Lefkaditou 331). Various groups were framed inferior due to their geographical locations which was considered as having a permanent effect on individuals. However, it was impossible to segregate individuals basing on skin color since there were no slaves who had completely different colors from their masters. For instance, the emperor Septimius Severus of the second century was considered neither black nor white. Hence, race, though in a slightly different perspective, was a key factor used to segregate individuals in the Ancient Greece.

Racism in Ancient Greece manifested itself by Greece superiority. Some tribes in Greece were considered superior while others including the Macedonians and barbarians were taken as inferior. The term ‘barbarian’ was coined to refer to those people who did not speak Greek fluently, poor speakers. Studies depict a solid example of the Greeks referring to Persians as the ‘trousered’ weak individuals who were fond of excessive makeup (Lefkaditou 332). This illustration was used to show the superiority of the Greek people over the Persians. The Greeks also posed foreigners to unfair treatment by subjecting them to their habits. For instance, the cannibalistic eating habits, women standing up to piss and the issue of women being in charge with disregard to men. The doings created rifts among other individuals. Such acts cemented the idea of racism in ancient Greek.

‘The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity,’ a book written by Ben Isaac has a different perspective towards racism in ancient Greece. According to him, protoracism, which is a modification to the present world racism, was present in ancient Greece. The Greeks portrayed xenophorbia which entails the fear of anything foreign as a major factor relating to racism (Rose 332). However, a slight modification to encompass biological characteristics was used to determine racial superiority. In their naivety, the Greeks believed that characteristics obtained from the environmental and geographical location were permanent and could be used to determine the superiority of an individual’s race. Such factors intensified racism in ancient Greece.

Conclusively, tribalism and racism have been instrumental in shaping ancient Greece. Tribalism as a cohesive concept brought various sub states of Greece together. Consequently, it brought disputes among other states. Racism, in ancient Greece is attributed to climatic conditions as opposed to skin color as is the case at present. Racism has been attribute by scholars such as Aristotle and Alexander the Great as a leading factor to rifts between the ‘superior’ Greece race and the ‘inferior’ Barbarian race. Therefore, tribalism and racism were present in the ancient Greece, though formed in the prevalent contexts.










His Early life

Malcolm X was born in Omaha, Nebraska in the 19th of May, 1925 as the fourth born amongst eight children. His father Earl Little, a preacher, was an honest follower of Marcus Garvey, the head of the Black Nationalist. During his early years, his family relocated severally due to racism. The family moved from Omaha, Nebraska after receiving threats from Ku Klux Klan, a group of people who believed in white supremacy. Their house was burned in Michigan while living in an all-white neighborhood.

At six years of age, Malcolm’s father was brutally murdered and the black community blamed the crime on the white people. Out of his four uncles, three were also killed by the white people. Malcolm’s family suffered when work became scarce in the 1930s after the nation fell into Great Depression. They had to live on public welfare. After Malcolm’s mother became mentally ill for about twenty years, he was taken to a foster home and was later forced to live in various boardinghouses and state institutions.

His Education and time in jail

Malcolm X schooled at Mason High School which at that time had a few black students. The students elected him as the class president because of his outstanding performance. In 1939, his English teacher asked him about his future career. His answer was that wanted to become a lawyer. He got discouraged when his teacher told him that it is pointless for a black child to pursue education. As a result, he quit school the preceding year at the age of fifteen and went to live with his stepsister, Ella at Boston.

Malcolm X was given a 10-year prison sentence after being charged with larceny in 1946. He read constantly while in prison in an attempt to cover up for the education years that he lost when he dropped out of high school.

How he became a member of nations of Islam

While in prison, Malcolm’s several siblings who had become members of the National Islam came to visit him. The National Islam was a small association of black Muslims who adopted the Black Nationalist ideology. Malcolm adopted the Nation of Islam culture in 1952 before he was released from jail.

How he found the true Islam

As a freeman, he took a trip to Detroit, Michigan to join hands with the head of the Nation of Islam, Elijah Muhammad. He also traveled to Europe, Africa, and Mecca, Saudi Arabia’s city which was the holiest city of the Islamic religion. Malcolm X found new temples in Philadelphia and Harlem and also became the minister of Temple No. 11 in Boston and Temple No. 7 in Harlem.  During these trips, Malcolm changed his perspective of how he used to view white people as evil. He wrote that he had found the rightful meaning of the Islamic religion and he converted his name to El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz. His militant proposals in 1960 earned him many followers and fierce critics. The National Islam number members grew due to Malcolm’s effort from the time he was released in 1952 to 1960.

After his death, commentators criticized and ignored his recent political and spiritual transformation. But after publishing his autobiography, Malcolm X will be remembered for his great contributions to the society.


Alonso de Illescas was an African slave leader in Esmeraldas in the 1500s. Alonso attracted attention in history as he opted for diplomacy as compared to brute force while making negotiations for his people. Through a letter he wrote to the Spanish government, Alonso exhibits a leader with great love and interest for his people as well as a learned individual with an ability to express himself. Additionally, it is also clear that Alonso had an in-depth understanding of cultural life of the Spanish and thus was able to communicate with them in a way that was understandable. The structure of the paper comprises of an introduction, Alonso’s history, the letter, the tone of the letter, and the interpretation of the letter.


  • Grew up in Tenerife. Alonso grew up in Tenerife a territory that was predominantly Spanish culturally (McKnight and Garofalo 31). Growing up with the Spanish people exposed Alonso to their culture an issue that enriched his life. The deep understanding of the Spanish culture gave him an opportunity of engaging with the Spaniards on a personal level. The fact that he grew up in a region that introduced him to the Spanish way of communication prepared him for the leadership position that he took. Interestingly, finding himself in the midst of Spanish was coincidental and his past interaction led to friendly relationship he had with them.
  • Shipwrecked around 1550s (McKnight and Garofalo 31). Alonso became a residence of Esmeraldas by coincidence after a shipwreck. Including twenty three survivor, he decided to take refuge in the Island and found the natives were welcoming. However, their relationship with the Spanish was quite unfriendly as they were resisting their rule. Fortunately, the indigenous nature of the region in addition to the thriving trading activities made it inaccessible for the Spanish. Unfortunately, soon the Spanish were able to take control of Esmeraldas and governed it.
  • As the leader of the African community in Esmeraldas Alonso had to find a way of protecting his people from displacement with the construction of a port (Lugo-Ortiz & Rosenthal 136). When the Spanish government took over, the Africans in region became slaves and contents of trade. As slaves and through trade the Africans found themselves in different part of the world. For decades, the plight of the Africans worsened with the looming construction of the port that would push them further south. It is at this point, the Alonso decided to contact the Spanish government in an attempt to negotiate for a better treatment of the people.

Overview of Lecture Notes

Franklin D. Roosevelt suffered from poliomyelitis while on vacation in Canada. As a result, he could not walk; instead, he used radio, trains, automobiles, telephones as well as airplanes to achieve his goals. FDR vied for the gubernatorial position for New York City and won in 1928. He later became the president of USA.

Meanwhile, World War 2 was looming. By 1941, Germans had made some advancements for the war. During that time, there was a lot of focus on Pearl Harbor, which served many nations as their Imperial General Headquarters comprising of thirty-four functions. The USA attached Imperial General Headquarter that resulted in the sinking of two Japanese subs. The Japanese revered by striking naval and Oahu air base, which killed two thousand four hundred Americans the USA later revenged, resulting in many casualties.

Later in 1942, Germany declared war against the US that was out of their plans. At the same time, FDR faced a lot of opposition both internationally and domestically, which he overcomes. He had objectives such as reducing American casualties, one of the driving force to the war. He faced challenges during the war, as the opponents were prosperous and stable countries. FDR paid his visit to Africa to discuss different issues. The battle proceeded as the Cairo Declaration stated that unless Japan surrenders, the fight will not end. There were many agreements made by the FDA's visit to different nations. Early 1945, FDA lost his life at Warm Springs in Georgian.

In the same year, the focus shifted on Germany that was invaded, and the red army took over Berlin. Since China failed to surrender the USSR and the USA agreed to invade them until they admit defeat. As a result, the armies of the two nations and their allies bombed most cities of Japan, causing many fatalities. Many people died, and many properties were damaged as well. Japan finally surrendered when an atomic bomb destroyed Tokyo. The war ended in 1945. After the war, there was a mass migration of people to different places that were not affected by the war.

Truman was inaugurated as the president of the USA after the death of the FDA. The too signed many legislations including Employment Act of 1946. Truman was involved in many foreign affairs, including the cold war, which started in 1946, and the formation of NATO in 1949. Other invasions continued in his reign. For instance, North Korea invaded S. Korea. The government helped the situation by sending troops to North Korea. In the subsequent election, Dwight Eisenhower wore the polls and later inaugurated as the American president. He signed many acts as compared to many previous presidents, including Truman. For instance, the Cuban resolution in 1959 was among them. In the elections held in 1960, JFK worn. He was too involved in signing some acts. His government also attacked the Bay of Pigs in Cuba to end the manufacture of nuclear weapons but failed. In his return, he was assassinated in Dallas in 1963.

After the death of JFK, Johnson was inaugurated as the next president. He fulfilled the legacy of JFK as he also helped Americans to forget the traumatized death of JFK. He passed many legislations in American history. During his reign, he invaded Vietnam. Johnson later in 1968, dropped out, saying he will not run for the next presidential race. The war in Vietnam leads to high for America as well as Vietnam. Ford became the next president and pardoned Nixon for the ill previously. Ford faced many economic challenges in his leadership.


Summary of Reading notes

While he was on vacation in Campobello Island in Canada in 1921, Roosevelt was paralyzed by poliomyelitis (Boyer, 2012). His mother advised him to retire from politics, but he heeded the advice of his wife to remain active in politics. As a result, he was able to contest for gubernatorial post in New York City in 1928 and worn despite the challenges he had in moving from different places (Boyer, 2012).  Roosevelt vied in 1941 and became the president of the USA (Boyer, 2012). During the same time, some Nations like German had started preparations for the Second World War. As a result, it was to require the involvement of USA (Boyer, 2012). For instance, it means that the government of the day was to be prepared enough to pass through the challenges during the war.

When Americans decided to get involved in the war, they started by invading Pearl Harbor, which was the different bases for the army as well as the air force of various countries including Japan Boyer, 2012). The war started by invading Japanese air base casing damages. Later Japanese retaliated causing some deaths. USA government aimed to deal with Japan but no other nations. However, Hitler’s government in 1941 provoked the USA government, making them react (Boyer, 2012). FDR's government faced many challenged at the same time because of domestic and international oppositions. FDR sorted to pay a visit to African countries to build good relationships with them. Meanwhile, he held discussions with some leaders, including USSR president, and vowed to fight Japan until they surrender.

After his return to America, FDR died while at Georgia Warm Springs. After his death, Truman was inaugurated to be USA president. During the same year, the Red Army attacked Germany and took over Berlin (Boyer, 2012). Many people died, and properties were destroyed. Truman, as USA president, he was involved in signing many Foreign affairs acts to enable them to solve the problem, which the world was facing at the time of the war. At the same time, Japan had not given up; they continued fighting (Boyer, 2012). The USA, together with its allies, decided to continue attacking Japan until they finally surrendered. The bombing in Tokyo resulted in a lot of loss for the nation that weakened it further. The war ended in 1945.

After the world war, they started the era of the cold war. Nations had learned from the experience of World War 2 and therefore, will not like it if another country invades them and caught unprepared (Boyer, 2012). As a result, Nations like Cuba started manufacturing nuclear weapons, which, according to the USA and its allies’ agreements was not to be made by some nations. At that time, JFK was the USA president (Boyer, 2012). His government had to act fast to eliminate the threats which Cuba could pose to its security as well as the safety of other nations. It attacked the country that Fidel Castro was governing by then. The attack failed. The failure was because of unpreparedness. USSR, together with the USA, then went later to find the solution for the challenge. In his return to the USA in 1963, JFK was assassinated in Dallas.

Johnson took over the presidential post (Boyer, 2012). He used the opportunity to pass much law as well as helping the citizens to transition well into his government and forget the traumatizing death of JFK. The USA government invaded Vietnam, recording a great loss for both parties. Ford's government was subsequent. It faced many challenges that destabilized the country. 



Summary of Lecture Notes

Thomas Woodrow Wilson was born in a city called Staunton in Virginia State on December 28, 1856. He married Ellen Axson in 1885. Their marriage lasted for ten years as his wife past on in 1914. Wilson advanced from 1885 and became a professor in 1902 after which he became president of Princeton from 1902 to 1910. He later vied for New Jersey Gubernatorial position that he won and he lasted in that position for two years, from 1911 to 1913. He then contended for the presidency of the USA in 1913. He won the race and became president of USA. On December 18, 1915, Edith Bolling the second wife of President Wilson and the First Lady up to 1921. Wilson retired in 1921 and died on February 2, 1924.

During his term, Wilson passed fifteen substantive, pragmatic, and legislative items, which among them was the Revenue Act of 1913 and Prohibition Act of October 1918. In 1919, Wilson won a Noble Peace Prize because of the substantial work had done. By the end of his term, Wilson had doubled the number of National Parks. He created nine more, as there were just eight of them previously. Among the new National Parks included Rocky Mountain National Park, which was established in 1915. Besides, Hot Springs National Park was created in 1921 before he retired. In 1914, the nations, which were allies from Europe, were France, Ireland, Portugal, Belgium, Greece, Italy, and England. The countries with nuclear power were Germany, Bulgaria, Turkey, Austria, as well as Hungary. Besides, the ones with neutral power were Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Switzerland, Netherlands, and Spain.

By 1882, Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary had allied. Bulgaria and Serbia formed Balkans. Russia, France, and, and Britain formed triple Entente by 1907 whereby they signed alliances and treaties. In 1914, different European and some Asian countries had organized their forces, and they started the First World War, which began in Northwest Europe. World War 1 was from 1914 to 1918, significant battlesTannenberg, Russia, Serbia, Romania, and some parts of the Ottoman Empire. At the end of the war, it was clear that Europe is prosperous enough that it can sustain a long, costly war. The technology that was used in the war included warplanes, railways, machine guns, artillery, and gas. In 1915, the American Civil War started, where many people were affected. During World War 1, armies employed Trench Warfare where they bogged down in trenches and aircraft could warn then whenever there was an attack. During the war, German U-Boat torpedoes the British passenger liner Lusitania off Ireland that resulted in more deaths including around one hundred and for teen USA citizens.

As a result, President Wilson issued a fiery warning to Germany and suggested to go into war with the country. After the Declaration of war by Senate in 1917, Wilson approved, but the allies of USA considered that it was better for them to make a peace treaty. The USA had formed partners with Canada to enable them to attain their goal. In 1918, there was a food shortage in most parts of Europe, where the condition was severe in countries like France, Turkey, and Germany. By 1910, the largest population of Germans in Austria-Hungary was the largest. The USA and its allies made a peace treaty that Wilson embarked back to promote. During the campaign, he suffered a severe stroke attack. Later Harding was nominated to be the president. He could not get into the war with Germany because Elizabeth blackmailed him. Harding later died in San Francisco in 2 August in 1923 because of many scandals that had provoked depression.

In 1932 elections, FDR won and became USA president. During his reign, he passed many bills, including wartime measures. The pension was one of the deals that were enacted in his presidency. In 1941, order that forbids discrimination because of race, color, creed, or national origin was passed. During his administration, the nation recorded growth rates in many sectors. Because of the ranges, which some countries had, they involved in the Second World War. German attacked countries like France, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg in 1940. France was later defeated the same year. Richard Sorge was one of the spies in the Barbarossa war. The war leads to many deaths in the Eastern Front.


Summary of Reading Notes

Woodrow Wilson was born in 1856 in Virginia (Boyer, 2012). After his graduation from Princeton, he earned his doctorate at Hopkins University. He became president of Princeton in 1902, advancing and became a professor of political science (Boyer, 2012). He married Ellen Louise Axson in 1885. He runs for gubernatorial post in New Jersey and worn. He later became the president of Democratic Convection in 1912 and later became president of the USA in 1913. During his reign, he passed many laws and treaties that lead to peace in the USA (Boyer, 2012). During his presidency, Edith Bolling was the first lady after the death of his first wife. He ended his term in 1921 and later died in 1994 from a stroke.

Before he retired from the presidency, the war was looming in Europe as countries had started forming treaties and allies (Boyer, 2012). Before that time there were some alliances which some of the European countries were in. For instance, Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary had allied. Besides, Serbia and Bulgaria formed Balkans. Russia, France, and, and Britain formed triple Entente by 1907, whereby they signed alliances and treaties (Boyer, 2012). In 1914, most countries in Europe had organized their forces for the World War 1. World War 1 was from 1914 to 1918, significant battlesTannenberg, Russia, Serbia, Romania, and some parts of the Ottoman Empire (Boyer, 2012). After the war, Countries like Germany has a food crisis. Most of them experienced severe drought that could not sustain agriculture (Boyer, 2012). For this reason, they had to look for a solution from other stable countries like Great Britain.

Finally, it was apparent that Europe could sustain a long, costly war. During World War 1, different technologies were used. The technologies employed were machine guns, artillery, and gas (Boyer, 2012). Besides, warplanes, as well as railways, were used to transport the army together with the firearms (Boyer, 2012). Alongside World War 1, the American Civil War started in 1915. As a result, many were injured, and some died too. During World War 1 armies employed Trench Warfare where they bogged down in trenches and aircraft could warn then whenever there was an attach (Boyer, 2012). As a result, many people, together with soldiers, died.  As the war was progressing, the German troops U-Boat torpedoes the British passenger liner Lusitania that resulted in more deaths, including some USA citizens (Boyer, 2012). As a result, Wilson issued a strong warning to Germany and suggested that his country face them in war (Boyer, 2012). They later decided for a peace treaty that promoted peace in the USA.

After Wilson’s presidency, Harding was elected as the next president of the states (Boyer, 2012). Because of his dirty secrets, he could not involve Germany into war since Elizabeth had promised to expose him he started the war. His health deteriorated because of stress that resulted in depression and died in 1923 (Boyer, 2012). After his term ended, FDR was elected as USA president in 1932. During his reign, he passed many bills, including wartime measures; he emerged to be among the best presidents in the history of the USA. In 1941, order that forbids discrimination on account of race, color, creed, or national origin was passed. Because of the ranges, which some countries had, they involved in the Second World War. German attacked countries like France, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg in 1940 (Boyer, 2012). During the war, Hitler had plans of conducting deadly operations in Barbarossa. Many people lost their lives in Europe.

Summary of Weekly Lecture Notes

In 1854, the colonists passed the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which grouped different USA states into three categories that include Free states and territories, Slave States, and Slavery determined using popular sovereignty. The Free states and territories include Oregon, CAL, MINN, WIS, IOWA, WIS, ILL, MICH, IND, Ohio, PA, NY, VT, ME, NH, MASS, RI, CONN, as well as NJ. While Utah, New Mexico, Nebraska, and Kansas represented territories that are slavery determined by popular sovereignty. Besides, Slave states included TEX, UNORG, MO, ARK, LA, MISS, ALA, GA, FLA, TENN, KY, VA, DEL, MD, NC, and SC. During that period, many were beaten and killed by colonialists.

In 1856, the Electoral Map was drawn.  The areas were segmented into four categories. The four regions included Territories, Democratic, Republican, and Fillmore. Besides colonization, the text contains a Revolution. Under revolution, James Buchanan emerged a strong candidate for worst president. In that, since 1848, he finished the last seven times in nineteen polls. Harding and Andrew Johnson were the second and third worst presidential contenders respectively. Buchanan was known for his odd behaviors and drinking habits. Additionally, the text introduces a new character by the name Dred Scott who was controversial. He was taken by his master to a free state from a slave state and claimed that he was now a free man. On this matter, the Chief Justice by then, Taney ruled that a black man had no rights of becoming a citizen and therefore was a slave of the white man. The actions of Buchanan split Democratic Party and a new Electoral map emerged. By 1861, there were three million five hundred thousand slaves. The economies if compared for Union and Confederate on iron production was one to twenty. At that time Lincoln was the president of the USA, from 1860-1865. He undermined the black race. From 1865-1870, constitutional amendments freed African from slavery and guaranteed them voting rights.

In 1898, the war between America and Japan emerged, where a lot of killing and damage was experienced. In 1901, Judge McKinley was killed in Buffalo Music Hall. Finally, from TR was involved in many Foreign Affairs, where many agreements were passed making him win the Nobel Peace Prize in 1906.

Summary of Chapter Readings

By 1700, approximately two hundred and fifty thousand of European birth settled within the USA and Canada (Boyer, Clark, Halttunen, Kett, & Salisbury, 2013). The white settlers, therefore, made up the first large North America's wave of immigrants (Boyer et al.., 2013). Besides, the same region in the USA was occupied by around thirty thousand enslaved Africans especially, in Chesapeake and Carolina colonies (Boyer et al.., 2013). On the contrary, while European immigrants could realize religious freedom and economic activities, almost all the blacks remained the property of others, slaves (Boyer et al.., 2013). However, after sometimes the Europeans merged with Africans to form movements only to uproot the Native Americans (Boyer et al.., 2013). Without such reasons, it could have been had for such movements to be formed. The war emergence of epidemic illnesses as well as the violent encroachment of the Indian lands by the Europeans, from 1600-1700s, resulted in the fights (Boyer et al.., 2013). As a result, nearly one million Indians died in the process leaving only a small percentage of the Native population. After the war, the European colonists built towns, cities, and plantations on the land that were initially owned by Native Americans.

In around 1770s, the roads towards revolution began (Boyer et al.., 2013). The angry crowd of the working class who are lingering in poverty gathered outside Boston customs house protesting hash treatment against a British soldier on a young apprentice who was collecting debt from a British officer (Boyer et al.., 2013). Among the crowd was Hewes who had also experienced the same treatments from British troops. Some people died but Hewes was injured. Because of such protests, many British soldiers were employed in the streets to calm the situation (Boyer et al.., 2013). After the Seven Years War between the British and France, the British occupied the areas French occupied. After passing the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854, the country was divided into Free and Slave states together with Slavery states that are determined by population sovereignty. In 1856, the Electoral map was drowned segmenting the country into four regions (Boyer et al.., 2013). During Lincoln’s presidency, his administration undermined the blacks (Boyer et al.., 2013). But, later the blacks gained freedom. The civil war started later between Japan and the American causing a lot of damage.

While researching on the American civil war, I realized that most authors believe the war presented one of the most tragic moment the country has ever faced. The war lasted from 1861 to 1865 and claiming more than 600, 000 lives. The main player in the war was President Abraham Lincoln who led the union against the southern states that had formed alliances to secede. However, before the war began, there was chaos brought about by ideological differences between the union and the sovereign states ranging from political, social and economic factors. This paper is therefore aimed at outlining the various stages that the American civil war went through leading to secession attempts by the southern states and the impact that each of the steps had on the ultimate outcome of the war.

Dred Scott Case

The court’s decision came on 6th March 1857 sparking various responses from anti-slavery movement and constitutional scholars in the north and the south (Foner 485). With regard to this case, the federal government portrayed a niche that evidenced its support for slavery despite underlying constitutional laws. This was a breach in the supremacy of the constitution that stated that anyone living in a free state could not be kept as a slave. The situation intensified after scot was in1850 declared a free man and two years later the decision reversed by the supreme court of Missouri (Foner 486).

One impact that Scott versus Emerson had to anti-slavery organizations and the general public in the north was that freedom from slavery could not be found from courts. This intensified the call for secession. Consequently, the rift between the south and the northern courts intensified with the northern courts ruling against slavery while the southern courts overrule.

The 1850 Concession

The agreement of 1850 encompassed five bills that steered change and more tension between the north and the south (Maizlish 58). This bill was in contrast to the 1820 Missouri compromise act which saw a balance in power the north and the south (Foner 356). With the entry of California as a free state, the balance of slave power that had long existed between the north and the south was compromised (Foner 469). Moreover, the fugitive act added fuel to the fire. The northerners were not slavering. Forcing them to return escaped slaves was a call against their will. Consequently, the south felt like she had been robbed of her economic tool, cotton farmers (Foner 390). This intensified the rift and hence the new act led to chaos.

Kansas- Nebraska Act of 1854

This legislation was a repeal of the Missouri compromise which had limited slavery. In this regard, the new legislation granted liberty to the people of Kansas and Nebraska to choose for themselves on whether slavery should be conducted within their borders (Foner 478). The new legislation led to the eruption of chaos between those against slavery and those in support of slavery who had sojourned in Kansas waiting to vote for or against slavery. To anti-slavery movements, this was a step back in the fight for freedom. Therefore, chaos intensified and the rift between the north and the south enlarged. This marked the period when physical confrontations leading to death emerged hence a direct prerequisite to the civil war (Foner 484).

                                                    The Secession of Southern States             

The southern states seceded at the time when Lincoln was president. The first state to call for separation was South Carolina then followed by other states such as Mississippi, Georgia, Florida and Texas (Foner 493). The states formed their own independent Federal Government in 1861. In retaliation, Lincoln sent word to loyal states requesting armed forces in order to recapture the fallen states. However, some states that bordered the southern succeeded states did not oblige to the call and instead went ahead and joined the confederation (Foner 496). The act to secede had a huge impact on the civil war. Lincoln had vowed to reclaim the lands that had fallen out from the federal United States. A kind of cold war existed, with the southern seceded states knowing too well that it was just a matter of time before action would be taken (Foner 497).

The Establishment of the Confederacy

On February 4 of 1861, the seceded states met and formed an independent confederation state, with a president, a vice president, and a constitution and a number of volunteers who joined the armed forces. Finally, the long-awaited action by Lincoln fell upon the southern states when Union troops clashed with the confederation troops at Fort Sumter (Foner 504). This marked the beginning of the civil war, and for the first time, the north and south fought in the battlefield.

In the beginning, the confederation seemed to have an upper hand. However, with the long match of time, the Union gained an upper hand. This was particularly facilitated by the lack of basic necessities for war such as armory, manpower and financial constraints in the south (Peck 20). Moreover, there existed a division in the Confederation Government the confederation started to recruit black slaves to the armed forces (Foner517). The futile effort by the Confederation to use slaves in the war as soldiers did not rescue the situation and on May 13th, 1865, the confederation fell and the civil war came to a halt.


Conclusively, it is evident that ideological differences and the subject of slavery had much held to the emergence, growth and subsequent eruption of the American Civil war. The north was against slavery, the main economic building block for the south. The presence of a hard-fisted president meant that all efforts had to be employed in order to keep the United States a single entity as enshrined by the forefathers.








Air defense encompasses all the strategies that are put in place to minimize the effectiveness of hostile air action. Some of these operations include command and control arrangements as well as passive measures which are meant to safeguard the air forces and naval ground wherever they could be. Nevertheless, for most nations, the main focus has been homeland defense. Airborne defense is referred to as counter-air while naval air defense is regarded as anti-aircraft warfare. Missile defense is an extension of the air defense in efforts or equipping the air defense with the ability to potentially intercept any projectile during flight.

In other nations such as Germany and Britain during the world war II, the air defense craft and the ground-based air defense have been under-regulated control and command. However, although the entire air defense may be meant for homeland defense including the military facilities and forces in the field regardless of where they are, they invariably utilize their air defense abilities which is commonly referred to army air defense. A surface-based air defense ability can also be deployed offensively to deny the use of air space to an opponent. This article looks into the detailed history of air defense artillery while identifying the key events that have taken place within it.

History of Air Defense

            Two significant aspects bring out the essence of air defense which are an airborne threat and something to defend whereby the air threat came into existence before the airplane. There was the idea of air defense before the flight of the white brothers in 1903.In August 1861, am American aeronaut during his trip in a ballon witnessed and reported the first ballon fire which was among the first pioneering attempts in active air defense. The air defense artillery started its evolution when the Col RP Davidson of USA constructed the primary automatic weapon during the year 1909 (Johansson, Fredrik &Goran,189). Nevertheless, there was minimal work done in the AD doctrine field because the military leaders were yet to discover the essence of air defense.

The significant air threat that was experienced in World War I geared the development of a dedicated Air Defense Artillery. In 1914, when the allied attacks on Germany became more rampant, the Germans utilized the new weaponry and named it Flugzeug Abwehr or Flak whereby the significant surveillance methods were searchlights and sound detection. The launching of London Air Defense in July 1917 was the initial step towards integration and centralization of assets such as the FF units, searchlight batteries and AA gun batteries in one group.

 At the end of World War I, to promote speedy demobilization, the active elements of air defense were broken up. In the inter-war period with the invention of Airforce to monitor the England Airspace, the Britain Air Defense was formed in 1925 (Werell et al., 87). The formation of this ADGB led to an integration of the air force for the air defense which had two different aspects, the Royal air force Bombing formations, and the fighting area. The combative area was composed of ten sectors under the Ground troops who had control over the ground base elements of Air Defense. The Garrison Artillery became abolished, and its units of air defense were transferred to the field artillery. In the 1930s radars development came about with another renaissance for the air defense and promoted induction of surveillance radars and improved guns.

In 1935 during the Abyssinian crisis, there occurred the first air defense deployment during the first air defense brigade deployment in Egypt to safeguard the English against attacks by Italians (Shlapack, David &Michael,31). The ground commander went on to be responsible for the local air defense because he was able to monitor the allocation of resources, passive measures, and deception. The Japanese conceived the procedural air control after the US Doolittle raids on Japan in 1942. Nevertheless, there was no time when the interceptors and the air defense operated under one commander. The defeat of the Japanese through air power is regarded as one of the classic instances of the big price that a country had for inadequacies as well as poor air defenses.

            It was after the Japanese air threat in South Eastern Asia during the Second World War that the British government was forced to raise air defense units in India. Therefore the history of air defense artillery in India started in 1939 going on up to when several Indian troops started receiving training on the use of the 3 –inch gun as one of the anti-aircraft batteries of Hong Kong, Singapore Royal Artillery and Indian artillery (Werell et al., 67). From 1941 going onwards Anti-aircraft command units and training initiative started to be launched in India. The organization of Anti-aircraft commands and formations through artillery for control and management led to the basis of gun density essence for protection of vulnerable points and areas. During the World War II period, the regiments for anti-aircraft commands were rewarded and recognized for the valor acts and commitment in the face of the enemy. During the time or partition, only two units of artillery came to India as the oldest Anti-aircraft commands initiative training battery did not make it during the separation.

            Air defense artillery came from the Coast Artillery Corps which was formed after the revolutionary war to fight for the US coasts against naval attack and bombardment. Coast artillery units were then detailed as anti-aircraft artillery units in 1917 as the US approached World War 1. The groups obtained their weapons from France without doctrine, and they joined the World War II starting with the engagement of the Japanese at Pearl Harbor. The aircraft command units currently refer to the combat group that majors in anti-aircraft weapons such as surface to air missiles (Shlapack, David & Michael,35).

In the US army, such groups mainly entail air defense systems such as the Patriot missile system, the Avenger air defense system and the terminal high altitude air defense. The air defense artillery came down from the anti-aircraft artillery into a distinct branch on 20th June in 1968. The Air defense artillery has therefore traveled a long journey which started from the ACK to the Air Defense Branch of Regiment of Artillery, development of separate groups of air defense artillery in 1994 and giving it a new name which is the corps of army air defense in 2005.

            To sum up, air defense artillery has made a significant change in various nations, especially in settling conflicts.The threats that that justify the need for the air defense artillery include different aircraft and munitions such as mortars and scud missiles. Air defense artillery is a well-known continuous and developing force that has been in place to safeguard the American troops against the threats that face it. Air defense artillery can as well be referred to as a group of weapons that divide the airspace into sectors. The first sector is the short-range air defense that defends against low altitude and the second one is short range aircraft and munitions which protects against high to medium height.

The reform era, also known as the progress era, is a period in history that led to a widespread of political reforms and social activists. Several social reformers and intellectuals joined hands together to promote basic change in the whole America. It was after Europeans colonized them and introduced systems that they were not comfortable with. Objectively, they wanted the slavery stopped and justice in schools and prisons. Although they succeed and brought about basic changes; the experience was never a pleasant one.

Several Native Americans were made slaves by the Europeans who had come to colonize America. At that time, the Americans were captured and forced to work in the European farmers with low or no payment.  Women on the other side were treated as weak people who could not be trusted with leadership in the society. In his poem, Fredrick Douglass acknowledged the fact that the society rejected women’s voice. In this poem, he reasoned that it was initially Gods plan that women be treated inferior compared to men. He used the biblical example of marriage in which women have to leave their parents and cling to the man. (The Seneca Falls 1848, p.305)[1]. As a result women were denied the rights to education. According to him, God was the cause of women being treated inferiorly. “Because God gave to the world a different moral for men and women”.

            The major theme in that era was to use forces and fight the bad Europeans who were the troublers. The social reformers and the professionals within the American native believed that all human were created by one God and thus deserved equal chances of happiness, liberty and life. (William 1831, p.269)[2]. In this period, they were moving around the country; convincing every citizen that they all deserved a better life. Which then resulted into people joining them. As time went by the numbers multiplied to figures that could advocate for their rights.  Including abolition of slavery and inequality in the schools and prisons.

            According to Dorothea (1843, p.2) jails were very corrupted depicting a contrast of what they were to be. Ideally, the jails are supposed to foster character development such that people arrested live while they are much better characters.  Surprisingly, there were high cases of immoralities in the jails and at times people Americans were accused of the things they never did. For instance Dedham was thrown to jail even though she had mental problem. Her issue was that she always shouted causing noise disturbance. Another case was Lincoln’s in which she was chained and placed in jail despite being “idiot” (Dorothea 1843, p.2)[3].  Through the cases mentioned it is true that the prisons needed reforms. Because without reforms people, especially women would still continue to suffer the society.

            Although it was a success; the era had success and failures in different measures. This era influenced other social movements in American setting. Religious groups became even happier when they saw that the burden was taken away from the. As a result people started worshipping God with might and passion. Also, it led to gender equality in which women were and are still seen as people with ability just as men (James 1854, p.280)[4].

             On balance, the reform era led to a widespread of political reforms and social activism with women dominating the entire process of change. The reason was that they wanted a better society that would acknowledge their rights. The essay has discussed the whole aspect and shown how women were involved in the whole process until they earned what they wanted.









[1] The Seneca falls. ‘Declaration of Sentiments’. 8-12. (1848): 305-306


[2] William Lloyd Garrison. ‘To the public’ in the Liberator. 8-3. (1831): 269-271

[3] Dorothea Dix.’ Memorial to the Massachutes Legislature’. (1843): 1-3.


[4] James Finley ‘Describes a Frontier Revival’. 8-6. (1854): 280-281