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401 N High St. Columbus OH,

43215, USA

Dear Sir/Madam,

            I am writing today to assert the importance of embracing Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as part and parcel of the marketing strategy. CSR is an essential strategy that numerous business organizations are using to ensure their businesses have a great relationship with the clients, the environment, the clients, the employees, and all the stakeholders who have a direct and indirect association with the organization. In the process, the organizations are reaping immense benefits as clients are offered services and products of high quality.

However, my focus is not on the entire strategy but its demands about employees. Research and studies have indicated that employees with high job satisfaction levels are an asset that increases business by attracting more clients to the company. Unfortunately, numerous companies fail to understand how to improve the job satisfaction levels and wind up with disgruntled employees. Therefore I am writing this letter to specifically create awareness of how to improve job satisfaction levels in employees which will enhance service provision especially since the organization is in the hospitality industry. With the stiff competition in the hospitality industry, the organization is required to find a competitive advantage with which it will retain its position as well as surviving the entry of new players in the industry.

One of the ways the organization would improve job satisfaction levels among the employees is using a leadership style that makes the employees feel like part of the organization. Irrespective of the business having a defined leadership style, the management team at the branch could be flexible and accommodate the employees, especially in the decision making process. Through this way, the employees will be accountable as they feel like part of the family and thus increase a sense of responsibility. In the end, the organization will end up with employees who work under minimum supervision which will give the management team time to focus on other matters in the company. Furthermore, the employees will play a vital role in finding solutions to challenges as they handle their responsibilities. It is therefore of absolute importance to allow employees feel like part of the organization.

Another way of improving satisfaction levels among employees is honoring their employment contract. There are numerous provisions in the employee contracts that are meant to ensure the interests of the employee are protected; therefore, following these requirements to the letter will ensure they are in the right mindset to offer services. Some of the provisions in the contracts are financial benefits and day offs; however, there are additional benefits that the company could give the employees. Bonuses and rewards are an example of such gifts that have a high possibility of improving the morale of the employees.

Additionally, the organization should provide a suitable working environment both physically and psychologically. Physically, the workplace should be well aired and with the necessary equipment to enable the workers to complete their responsibilities efficiently. Psychologically, the relationships at the workplace should foster initiative among the employees and encourage teamwork. Through this way, the employees will have improved morale and as their efforts will be appreciated when they are implemented. Notably, with increased employee participation, the organization will collect data that will be essential in having a deeper understanding of the target market.

The relationship between the employees and the management team is of the essence of the harmonious relationship required at the workplace. Therefore, through the leadership style and a friendly environment, the organization should find ways that would increase the chances of a harmonious relationship. Once this is accomplished, there will be adequate communication between the two entities which will be of the essence to the growth and development of the organization. Furthermore, the free flow of information increases chances of noting a problem and finding a solution promptly.

With employees with high levels of job satisfaction the clients and the organization are exposed to employees who are willing to work under minimum supervision, are accountable and initiative, are relaxed, and ready to work. The benefits will have future effects where the clients will come back as a result of the treatment they got from the organization. In this instance, CSR ensures the company focuses on the employees first as they are the direct link between the organization and their market. Additionally, focusing on the employees first and then the profits improve business as the business acquires return clients. Also, the organization will have low turnover levels as the employees will appreciate their jobs.

Ultimately, CSR is a strategy that allows the business to focus on other factors first and making profits secondly. In the hospitality industry, the treatment of the clients is crucial to the company as it defines whether or not the clients will come back. Therefore, ensuring the employees are in right mindset to give the best service possible is of the essence to the survival of the business. Guaranteeing the employees get their financial benefits such as paid overtime, paid day offs, and extra bonuses such as rewards from the organization will increase the morale of the employees which is a fundamental factor to the high job satisfaction levels. With employees that are eager to work the organization has a high chance of finding more clients as well as having an in-depth understanding of their target market.

Start-Up Cost

To increase the feasibility of business, Cobb et al (2012) argues that employee job satisfaction levels are of the essence. It is this mentality that a majority of chauffeur services companies in Dubai pay their drivers an approximate salary of 2100 – 2200dhs. Each driver in the company will require 200dhs for their license and 30,000dhs for the business in general. The insurance costs will depend on the size of the vehicle with the minimum premiums being 750 for the smallest car and 1750 for a large commercial car. Regulatory costs such as registration fee will be 400dhs; the drivers are paid a minimum of 2500 inclusive of their bonuses while vehicle inspection and maintenance will be 750-1000dhs per car. A website will cost around 20,000dhs while a mobile app will cost around 80, 000dhs. For the company to break even there is a need to have 1200 bookings.

Assessment of the Nature of the Market

            The target market in Dubai is business people who are in a hurry to get to their destination in a short period and who are specific about their comfort. Considering that Dubai is business hub, the likelihood of landing potential customers is high. Additionally, in such a busy region there is need for an alternative transportation method that would suit the guests that visit Dubai and are interested in travelling in comfort. Gulf Luxury Car Rental is one of the competitors that operate in Dubai and offer similar services. According to Manuel (2011) understanding the competition gives a business a upper hand with regards to the penetration of the market. Irrespective of Gulf Luxury Car Rentals being in business for a period of time, it will be easy to compete with a clearly defined competitive advantage. The competition in the region is quite stiff as there are numerous other companies and taxis that have been in existence in the industry for a long period. However, understanding the competition as well as the target market will give the business a higher chance of surviving the competition. Additionally, having a competitive advantage will make things easier for the company.

Price Setting

One of the major players in this industry is Gulf Luxury Car Rental which operates a chauffeur business that has cars ranging from small Toyota cars to large cars that can host families or people in business trips. They rent out their cars on a daily basis which consists of 10 hours. For a Toyota Camry they charge 600dhs, a Toyota Lexus goes for 700dhs, a Toyota Lexus goes for 800dhs, a BMW is charged 900dhs. The charges do not consider the distance covered but the time taken with the car. Through this way the company reduces the amount of taken to calculate the mileage and thus improve its efficiency considering the competitiveness of the industry in Dubai. The most appropriate prices would be similar to those of Gulf Luxury Car Rental but reduced with 20dhs. For instance, for a Toyota Camry would go for 580dhs for 11 hours.


In the 21st Century, the internet has become an important marketing tool that brings millions of potential clients together (Marvel, 2012). Focusing on this aspect, a mobile app would be of utmost importance. Karis (2015) states that a mobile app would provide a communication platform between the company and the clients and ensure there is a smooth flow of services. Additionally, the apps bring the clients closer to the company and play a significant role of a competitive advantage (Geffery & Loewy, 2011). One of the most effective marketing plans is Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR); the plan is based on focusing on the client first and profits later. The plans foundations are based on ensuring the clients returns to the company which will guarantee profits; irrespective of starting lower prices, CSR guarantees that the company is pushed to the leading position in the industry.

Admittedly, the website and the mobile app will go a long way in advertising the existence of the company. The features in the website and the mobile app will allow the clients and the company to interact which will lead to better service provision. Additionally, the company will keep the clients informed about its plans; future goals and objectives that create a sense of ownership in the clients. Through this way, the company will succeed and achieve its goals of penetrating a competitive industry.



The current global commercial morphology requires an efficient model of handling business processes. Many entrepreneurs are seeking to get leverage in their operational strategies regarding their businesses to be able to remain competitive in the commercial activities that they pursue. As a strategy of growth, BPM seeks to establish a seamless operational module that offers support to the manner in which businesses processes are undertaken.

The concept of BPM was theorized on the assumption that effective coordination of commercial processes is the ultimate goal of any business procedure. Intensive growth within any entity is hewn on enhancing the modalities through which these processes are handled. In this work, the concept of BPM has been elaborated. The focus is to highlight the manner in which BPM enhances organizational efficiency.

BPM is a critical aspect in the management of the organizational workflow. BPM encompass a range of activities within the organization that is meant to streamline the operations of the organizations in a more seamless manner. It enhances the agility of the organization and enhances the collaboration between major actors within the organization. BPM allows businesses to maintain their competitive advantage through a series of strategies specifically meant to ensure the company remains relevant in its industry. The goal of this discourse is to explore the input of BPM in enhancing the effectiveness of an organization and propose the method of organizational effectiveness improving by BPM using. Through the use of a case study, this paper will emphasize on the significance of the process in enhancing the effectiveness of the organization.

The first chapter of the work will focus on highlighting the various concepts of business process management. The second chapter relates the role of BPM to organizational effectiveness. In this regard, the discourse gives an in depth analysis of how BPM contributes to the effectiveness of an organization.  The third and last chapter use a specific case study to highlight how BPM is relevant in enhancing the effectiveness of organizations.
























                     I Chapter  Business Process Management basic concepts


1. Process approach to management

Business process management refer to the operations in business that are aimed at improving the operations of the business. the concept entails all those approaches that are employed by the management of any business enterprise, to "manage" and "optimize"  the operational processes within an organization. BPM borrows its concept from the realization that many factors or activities work in consonance to drive any business agenda, therefore, there is an urgent need by the business to adopt strategic models of ensuring that the set of business activities work efficiently to advance the business agenda. It seeks to instill more control on the various business processes and further the objectives of the organization.

As a business growth strategy, BPM consists of several other elements. These elments are critical factors in ensuring that the business activites within an institution are optimised to ensure efficiency in the operations of the business. These elemnts entail the under listed:[i]

i. Project management

ii. Vendor management

iii. Complexity management

iv. Standards management

v. Strategy management









1.1 Process approach to management

 We are living in such world, where the speed and agility is almost everything. It is essentially true for a business. To survive, the company should be able to adapt rapidly to all new changes, to be manageable and flexible. In small company all employees are in full view of managers, moreover, the most of work can be done directly by manager. The situation in larger organizations is way more complicated. In enterprises with a staff of fifty to hundred people, it is impossible to control each individual employee. Business process approach to management is a key of an organizational survival.

The main concept used in business process approach is the definition of process. There are a number of different definitions, but the most commonly used one is the standard ISO 9001.[ii] It defines the process as a “Set of interrelated and interacting activities, which transforms inputs into outputs”.  The important component of the process, which is not mentioned in the above definition, is a systematic character of the actions. Steps of the process must be repeated and not random.

The business process approach was developed and is used to create the horizontal communication within the organizations. Departments and employees, involved in the same process, can individually coordinate the work process and solve the problems without the Senior Management involvement. Process approach enables to solve the problems more efficiently and to impact on the result. Unlike the functional approach, the process management allows to concentrate not on individual department work, but on results of the organization as a whole.  The process approach is changing the definition of the organizational structure. The key element is a process. According to one of process approach principles, the organization consists of processes and not departments.

The process approach is based on several principles.[iii] The implementation of these principles can greatly enhance the efficiency of work; however, it requires the specific corporate culture. The transfer from functional to process management requires the continuous collaboration of employees, despite the fact that they may belong to different departments. The “performance” of process approach principles will depend on the successful collaboration of employees.

For the implementation of the process management it is important to adhere to the following principles:[iv]

  • Interaction of processes. The organization is a network of processes. Process is a performance of any activity. All processes of the organization are interrelated.
  • Process demand. Each process should have a well-defined goal and output demand. Each process outcome must have its own internal or external customer.
  • Process documentation. The process activity should be documented. This enables to standardize the process and acquire the base for the change and further process improvement.
  • Process control. Every process has the input and output, which define the process boundaries. Each process within its boundaries has indicators, characterizing the process and its results.
  • Process ownership. Various experts and employees may be involved in the process execution, but responsibilities for the process and its results should be assigned to one person.

Process approach requires a number of key elements for its successful implementation in the organization.

Key elements include:

  • Input;
  • Output;
  • Resources;
  • Process owner;
  • Customers and Suppliers of process;
  • Process indicators



Organizational structure




                             Administrative structure



Process quality system

Business process

Business process management system





Figure.1.1 The inputs of the process are the elements, which undergo the changes

            The inputs of the process are the elements, which undergo the changes during the workflow.[v] Inputs of a process approach are: materials, equipment, documentation, various information, personnel, finances, etc. Process outputs are considered to be the results of the activity. The output refers to a tangible product, as well as any kind of service or information. Resou

From the videos, Sustainable Consumption retrieved from and Transforming Organization with Sustainability Management retrieved from http// it is clear the world is in dire need of sustainability. There is an ecological imbalance that is destroying the environment. From the videos, it is evident that the world is aware of the destruction of the environment that has been taking place and is ready to take action to preserve nature. The videos are some of the action the world is being strategic at its goals of sustainment with the assistance of the business community.

There is a clear indication that the environment is degraded as a result of people seeking ways of improving their lives. For instance, motor vehicles are an essential part of human living as people need them for the movement of goods in business as well as locomotion. However, the amount of toxic gases released to the environment by motor vehicles is extremely high (Ekstrom, 2015). It is in this mentality that the world is looking into engines that use renewable energy such as electricity. Unfortunately, numerous other human activities have disastrous effects to the environment and require keen assessment as well.

The videos give an impression that there is ample information available on the state of the earth currently. However, as a result of pressures of modern living, people lack personal goodwill to take action in conserving the environment. Soler (2017) states that to have increased interest in sustainability from consumers businesses have to lead by example. The events captured in the videos assert on Corporate Social Responsibility as an essential part of sustainability. Business people have to think beyond making profits and consider the effects their productions activities have on the environment. Notably, businesses and business people are key players in sustainability. According to Hlupic (2014) argues that consumers are likely to follow the advice and actions of their suppliers and retailers. For instance, if business leads the way by showing their customers how to manage their bio-degradable waste, they are likely to follow the instructions. It is therefore of utmost importance to have businesses take a leading role in sustainability. Also, companies should be a target of all stakeholders interested in protecting the environment as they have relevant influence on their consumers. The events on the videos are crucial at creating awareness of the actions to be taken to conserve the environment. 

Also, from the videos, one gets the impression of urgency in taking action to conserve the environment immediately. Larsson (2018) states there is adequate, and relevant information on the current environmental degradation and its countermeasures. Therefore, it is time to take action. Fortunately, some organizations have taken active roles in the fight against the destruction of the environment. The result is the global going green campaigns that have attracted the attention of relevant stakeholders. However, there are plenty of strategies that require consideration to ensure the world is on par with regards to the conversation. Notably, the videos are important at conveying a message about sustainability. They exist as a result of the technological advancements of the 21st Century. Therefore, due to this advancement, the sustainability efforts have higher chances of achieving success. The use of the internet to pass on information similar to what the videos achieved has the potential of reaching millions of people from different parts of the world. Additionally, the fact that other people could stream in-live and participate in the events without being physically present at the location is an advancement that requires appreciation. Therefore, technological progress is an essential tool in the sustainability efforts currently underway.

While organizing Meetings Incentives Conferences and Exhibitions (MICE) the first step is introducing the speaker. Also, it is essential to add the theme of the event and state precisely what it all about. In this way, the audience will be reminded of the aim of the event. Notably, the participants of the event are aware of its details; however, a brief reminder is professional as well as friendly. Notably, it is quite important to strike a pleasant note with the audience by being funny. However, to be funny, the speaker has to understand his/her audience which will play a significant role in coming up with relevant jokes. For the speaker to successfully crack jokes with the audience, they require having a witty personality.

Before organizing MICE, there is a need to consider food and beverages that the participants will take during breaks. Refreshments will be made required frequently, so there is a need to have enough supply. While organizing for beverages, there has to be a variety that would suit the different tastes of the audience. To reduce disorganization once the events start, it is important for the speaker to give an outline of the activities and their time. In this way, the audience will follow the activities systematically. Additionally, an overview gives a professional outlook on the events in addition to reducing anxiety in the audience as they are aware of flow of activities.

Active participation by the audience is achieved by allowing them to speak to the group individually. Doing this, the audience members will give their experiences or opinions on the matter. Notably, some of the members might have a vast amount of knowledge or information that might be useful to the rest. Also, it is paramount to allow for the other members to ask questions about the topic the speaker tackled. In this way, there will be a thorough understanding of issues in addition to the development of professional relationships. Periodic breaks are necessary to maintain attention. However, during the breaks, the audience should snack on the available snacks and beverages in addition to participating in some activities that are not associated with the main topic of discussion. Such activities break the monotony and boredom of speeches and make the audience more attentive. Keeping time of the events makes the event interesting for the audience. Since the events attract the audience from different parts of the world through the online portals, it is of utmost importance to keep time.

Moderation is also important in keeping the event organized. Moderation allows for the audience to actively participate in the discussion in an organized manner. Additionally, any new information should be considered a topic for future MICE. In this way, the participants will feel appreciated as their ideas were discussed. More so, the suggestions made by the participants could provide new ideas and strategies of handling the problem at hand. Making a verbal promise of organizing such an event with the ideas brought forward by the audience is essential at attracting participants for future events.



The compensation for the time and hard work that one invests in education is landing a job that is both well-paying and intrinsically fulfilling. There are clear dimensions that each individual has for their dream job. These dimensions dictate the educational and research path to follow and the networks to establish. The contribution of these factors more often than not results in the attainment of the dream job.

In some cases, however, it is not guaranteed that education, research, and networking will attract the dream job immediately after studying. With the current fluctuations in the job market and global economics, a person may be forced to take a position that is offered regardless of their taste. The employment may be well-paying, but lack the other characteristics of a dream job. Nonetheless, it is imperative to hold on the dream of getting a job that one inspires for life.

I would wish to become an operations manager for a multinational organization involved in the design and development of computer software. In the organization, I would not be directly engaged in the technicalities of making or testing computer programs but rather oversee the activities involved in the company like client management, quality improvement, stakeholder relation management, and offering managerial advice to my seniors. This position is a very relevant post for any company that deals with multiple activities. Coordinating all the operations in the organization is mandatory since they need to run smoothly. I would report all progress to the top management and also deescalate decisions to the technical teams.

There are very high prospects of employment for operations managers in many institutions across the country. There are new technology companies that are coming up and rapidly expanding globally. More expansion means higher demand for personnel to coordinate local and international activities. Existing companies also need a considerable staff body comprising of operations managers and team coordinators. A job as an operations manager in the technology industry is lucrative. To begin with, most computer software companies are Fortune 500. It means, therefore, that they have high revenues and the compensation for their employees is remarkable.

My job as an operations manager will entail five core functions. First, I will form an essential link between the technical teams and the top management. The head of each group will report to me on various matters which I will then present to the senior management. I will, therefore, be in the frontline in identifying informational, professional, and development gaps and address them with the powers at my disposal. Secondly, I will play an important role in quality assurance. Computer software needs to be of the utmost quality. It implies, then, that each technology company should have a quality assurance committee. As the operations manager, I will chair the committee to discuss product quality matters like defaults and consumer feedback.  Thirdly, as the operations manager, I will spearhead the quality improvement to raise standards of work in the organization. This would entail establishing the baseline conformance to international standards and implementation of a quality management system. I will, for instance, carry out continuous spot checks and internal audits to detect compliance to the quality standards. I will develop the system operating procedures and train employees on how to implement them. For the non-conformity actions identified, I would institute and monitor corrective actions. Fourth, I will represent the top management in stakeholder engagement. The stakeholders in the computer industry are competitors, insurance companies, the tax authorities, professional bodies, and regulatory authorities. I will collect their views and consider their interests, which I will then integrate into the operations of my company. Lastly, I will look at the welfare of the clients. As the operations manager, I will collect customer feedback through regular offline and online surveys. I will address customer complaints with the necessary people and give feedback to ensure consumer satisfaction.

The operations manager in the organization is entitled to compensation just like any other employee. There are many compensation programs that employers apply, although there is missing data on their effectiveness (Gupta and Shaw, 2014). The compensation programs are based on work hours, employee and organizational performance, incentive system, pay secrecy, complementary rewards, and pay variability (Gupta and Shaw, 2014). In some companies, the employees are paid according to the number of hours they spend working. While the labor laws are categorical on the standard hours that an employee should work for, each firm has a policy that is often aligned with the national guidelines. However, companies define compensation for extra hours that an employee spends in the workplace. The incentive system is a compensational methodology that employers use to raise motivation and improve performance. Compensation goes hand in hand with performance-based benefits programs. In the former, an employer issues incentives in the form of money or other rewards before the employee begins working. In the latter, the benefits are given when employee performance is above average by certain standards. As Gupta and Shaw (2014) opine, incentivizing an employee is not a guarantee of quality. In fact, an employee struggles with the poor in the name of appeasing their employers. Equal pay for equal work is the ideal compensation methodology that companies ought to use. However, measuring work is a contentious issue that usually makes this method impracticable — measuring the amount of work than an employee does can only be done with the consideration of the overall performance of the company. Thus, many companies give commission to employees when they report good returns at the end of a financial year. Other considerations during employee compensation are privacy of payment, outstanding worker recognition, and pay variability across job groups (Gupta and Shaw, 2014).

Like other employees, an operations manager should have annual staff performance appraisal conducted on them to identify opportunities for growth and chances of promotion. The first consideration in staff performance appraisal to have a policy for the company to use. The policy dictates among other things the frequency and methods of conducting staff appraisals. The rating scale is a standard methodology used by most companies. Under this system, specific items of an employee's performance are rated on a scale and scored at the end. The overall score would then tell if the employee is productive for the company or not. Regardless of the method used, performance appraisal would shape a behavioral pattern depending on the outcome of the appraisal (Kadiresan et al., 2015). The staff appraisal exercise in many institutions end up with a reaction. An employer uses the results of appraisal to make important staff decisions like training or job promotion. If the staff perform poorly, an employer may decide to take them through on-job training and build their capacity for improvement. Excellently performing employees may be promoted to a higher job group. For example, an operations manager overseeing the activities of an offshore subsidiary can be mandated to coordinate activities of all company’s outlets across the world.

Human resource management is the arm of the company that deals with all matters concerning staff viz; compensation, employment, retention, promotion, and dismissal. As an employee of the company, the operations manager reports to the human resource manager in matters of his employment. For example, he is subject to staff appraisal which is under the docket of the HR manager. Many issues fall under this department. For a long time now, there has been immense scholarly work done on human resource management. Since the existence of the corporate system, organizations have always explored the means to leverage the human resource and maintain profitability in their respective sectors. The compensation of employees, for example, is one area that has attracted numerous studies. Human resource professionals have looked into ways that would optimize staff compensation and maintain their productivity. Other traditional issues on human resource management are staff training and promotion plans, benefits and personal welfare, workplace harassment and discrimination, and staff turnover. There are current and emerging issues in the field of human resource management that require keen control in the light of rising market competition.

Noe et al. (2017) identify current HR subjects as evidence-based human resource management, business sustainability, employee engagement, talent management, offshoring, high-performance work systems (HPWS), virtual teams, electronic human resource management systems (eHRM), and human resource information system (HRIS). According to Noe et al. (2017), the management of these issues is necessary for tackling competition and attaining market leadership. Evidence-based human resource management, for example, allows companies to enact policies that are effective as shown by empirical research. If, for instance, there is a study showing that offering performance-based benefits improve worker productivity, the company would initiate a method of offering benefits only to those employees that have exemplary performance in business sustainability. Noe et al. (2017) argue that cut-throat competition may prompt business to take countermeasures at the expense of the employees. Precisely, a company may spend money in mergers and acquisition and leave none in its coffers to compensate employees. There must, however, be clear communication to

Franchisees own and operate more than 80% of McDonald’s restaurants all over the world. McDonald’s company is among the top 10 franchisees all over the world according to Entrepreneur Magazine. McDonald’s is also ranked number 1 among the top 200 franchises by Franchise Times Magazine. To own one of these franchises can be a profitable business, but it is extravagant. Most McDonald’s operators usually join the corporation by buying an existing one. One requires a total of $1-$2.2 million stakes, with $750,000 liquid capital to start one. According to QSR magazine, the annual sales produced by an average McDonald’s restaurant amounts to $2.5 million. These sales make it the fourth-highest-grossing chain per unit sale in the US (Gerhardt et al., 2012).

According to McDonald’s, the startup costs including expenses for equipment and construction ranges between $958,000 and $2.2 million. 40% of this startup costs and other none borrowed resources must be paid in cash by the franchisees, but the rest can be financed. On top of these costs, a franchisee fee of $45,000 and a monthly service fee of 4% gross sales is charged by McDonald’s. A percentage of monthly sales must also be paid as rent to the company be the franchisees (Gerhardt et al., 2013).

. Historically, franchisees have paid rent costs of about 8.5% of the sales. Some even spend as much as 12%. The startup costs of McDonald’s franchisees are close to those of Taco Bell, Wendy’s, and KFC. Subway, however, is less expensive compared to this companies.  According to the company, Subway’s startup costs between $116,000 and $262,850 and requires only $30,000 to $90,000 liquid assets (Lawrence & Kaufmann, 2011).

In this century, consumers still need to be protected from doggy sellers who are all after making money. In most cases consumers have at some point been given faulty commodities or low quality services. A few of the affected consumers followed on the issue with most of the consumers knowing not what to do next (Mayer 120). Thus, it is important for all consumers to know the existing protections when dealing with transactions that entails exchange of money for other commodities. However, most of the consumers knows little about the laws established to protect them from such business malpractices. Protection simply means prioritizing consumers’ interest to see that they get quality products at realistic prices (Howells 10). In this regard, the paper intends to fill the existing gap in knowledge about consumer protection law. The study will be divided into three different subtopics. (1) Definition of consumer protection, (2) the significance of protecting consumers (3), strategies that consumers can use to protect their rights. 

Career Application.

I chose to study about consumer protection law because am looking forward to open a hotel after completing my school. About three years ago, I saw how a customer mistreat a hotel manager whom she blamed to have given her bad food. However, I did not understand what quality meant to that customer. Presently, I know what quality means to a customer. In this regard, I consider the study as an opportunity for me to learn how to treat my customers in future. Since this research will equip me with knowledge about most of the things that I have never known in my life. 

Definition of Consumer Protection Law.

According to Howells and Weatherill (p.10), consumer protection laws are the policies put in place safeguard the ordinary people who are purchasing goods and services in the market. The reason is to protect them from doggy traders who are ready to sell faulty goods without caring the impact of their behavior on the consumer. In most situations, consumer protection deals with pricing, product safety, credit repair, debt repair and other personal loans that may have accumulated to huge figures over time. Ethically, businesses should set good prices that does not exploit them nor the consumers. However, in a case where prices or debts are not controlled then there is likelihood of most activities in the market becoming stagnant. Therefore, consumer protection law bars the sellers from creating shortage in the market so that they shoot the prices.

According to Giliker (95), all consumers have legal rights to be secure with the commodities that they buy. More especially with the food stuffs (Baron 200). For instance, the agricultural products sold to them must have undergone through clean stages all the way from the farm to the market. Also, every consumer has legal rights to stay safe from environments pollutions. Pollutions ranges from contaminations on the water bodies to soil and air. In most cases the consumers have been unconcerned of the fact that there environment should always be clean and never allow anybody subject them to a contaminated environment (Giliker 93). The other legal right is access to information in which every consumer has the legal rights to seek for more information about the product that they wish to buy so that they get to understand something better before buying it. All these rights are important for every consumer and they should always stand for what they know is right.

Significance of Protecting Consumers.

In a case where the customers are not protected; there is likelihood of them being exploited by the sellers and suppliers in that market (Mayer 120). The reason is that people are generally unsatisfied and once given a chance they intend to maximize their return.  In which the traders will subject the buyers to unsafe commodities and inaccurate measurement apparatus with a focus on maximizing their returns. Also, the suppliers will practice hoarding in which they will create a shortage into the market to overprice the items. In economics, a shortage of a particular good makes it hard to find the good in which the lesser ones are overpriced to make them available only to a few members (Pigou 9). In this line, hoarding will also create a temporary shortage so that customers are overexploited.

Every society should encourage the culture of protecting consumers’ interest in that such protections have got several benefits both at personal and society levels. It brings the aspect of social responsibility in which every trader is forced to adhere to the standards set. The standards provides an outline of how businesses and organizations operate in a manner that is socially accepted. In this way, every member of the society gets satisfaction from any trader simply because they are adhering to similar standards (Giliker 93). Also, it provides for a system in which complaints from the buyers are directed to the sellers and acted upon. In most cases, the buyers have complained of poor quality or other issues relating to certain products. However, most of those cases have been ignored simply because there is no effective channel in which the complaints can be carried to the sellers. Thus the protection laws ensures that consumer’s complaints are directed to the sellers; and sellers followed to ensure that the complaints are acted upon.

Strategies That Consumers Can Use To Protect Their Rights.

Protection must start from within the customers themselves. They must not sit down and see their rights violated such that they are overcharged prices or buy faulty goods. Thus, the customers should do the followings. Firstly, learn about their basic consumer rights to which every consumer is entailed (Baron 200). In this way, they will understand that they have the freedom to be informed about products before buying. Also, learn that they have the freedom to be kept free from environmental pollutions. In this way, the consumers will have learnt how to approach traders who does not have any interest in making their lives better.  Secondly, the consumers should always weigh large and risky purchases before making them (Baron 201). That is, check with other traders to ensure that the items they are about to buy are not overcharged. In this way, they will be in a position to purchase from the customer who offers the best quality at the least price possible.

Thirdly, the consumers should always ask about the product warrants.  A warrant is a pledge given by the seller or manufacture in which they promise to repair the product or replace it if it develops complications in a particular time frame (McKay 10). The federal law requires that Americans review and compare warrants among various traders so that they only go for traders whose have put in place realistic warrants (McKay 10). Fourthly, the buyers should always check that the professionals are licensed. Legally, license grants an individual powers to practice in a particular field of profession. In the case of business, licensing a business person means that he/she has met the required standards for one to do that business. In that way, the consumers will always be sure that the traders whom they are doing interactions with are individuals who have been tested by the licensing body and found trustable to deliver high quality product.

On balance, consumers’ protection is essential in that it prevents them from being exploited by traders in the market. Thus every government is putting in place laws that will ensure that sellers adhere to set business standards in all their activities. Every consumer is entitled to rights to access information and be safe in what he/she consumes. Also, rights to leave in a clean environment. The traders on the other side, are expected to offer best products to the consumers’ at most favourable prices. However, it is key noting that protection starts with the consumers themselves. In which they have to learn about basic consumer rights such as safety and access to information. Also, do a critical evaluation of the market prices of a particular product before purchasing the product. Then make inquiries of warrants and licenses that the traders uses. In doing these, they will have vastly reduced the chances of being exploited by putting these traders on spot. 

On 30th of November 2018, the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement was officially adopted by the three states to modernize the North-America-Free-Trade Agreement. Much of the NAFTA content is present in the USMCA. The new collaboration between the member states led to improvements in respect to the current issues in the global trade. The paper outlines the major points of changes in both agreements.

Differences in both Agreements.

Firstly, the country of origin policy. Under the new agreement, USMCA, the trucks and cars manufactured must have 75% of their parts made in the United States, Canada or Mexico. A substantial increase from the former 62.5% as in the old agreement. The objective is to increase manufacturing of auto components in North America by having companies use their raw materials (Shawn et al., 2018). Secondly, the accessibility of Canadian dairy market. Under the new deal, U.S farmers are allowed to start dairy markets and sell milk to Canadian markets. Also, class 7 milk is pulled out of the dairy market to enable US farmers to buy milk from Canadians at lower prices. The old deal does not provide for free access to Canadian dairy market. As a result, the US farmers complained that the Canadian structure of domestic quotas limits foreign competitions (Shawn et al., 2018).

Thirdly, the trade dispute mechanism. Under the old agreement, NAFTA outlines three types of dispute settlement system. Its chapters 11, 19 and 20, there is a definened process for solving misunderstandings between the companies and NAFTA policies; cross-border clashes as and conflicts between states respectively. However, the new deal makes some changes in chapter 11 of NAFTA and retained chapters 19 and 20 (Shawn et al., 2018). Fourthly, the sunset clause. USMCA incorporates a 16-year sunset clause to provide for the expiry of the terms of agreements after a particular period. Under the old deal, no automatic sunset clause exists, and parties can withdraw anytime they wish with a six-month notice (Shawn et al., 2018). Fifthly, the currency exchange rates. NAFTA does not have a chapter about currency. The new deal has a section about money that alleges the three nations to preserve market-determined rates to avoid devaluation of currencies (Shawn et al., 2018).


Given a position to serve as a CEO in a firm that supplies the three countries with engines for their auto productions, I would recommend the three states to increase the use of technology to boost efficiency and automate procedures to produce high quality products. Automated procedures would save on time and the number of employees needed to carry out a task and reduce dependency on human labor in control of operations. Reduction in human labor is possible with automated procedures because the techniques work in automated sequence. Also, the three countries should explore and recruit new immigrants to absorb various skills and talents into the industries. People from different countries will probably have different knowledge of approaching issues and can be advantageous to companies. Additionally, the member states should enlist young people and retired people in various parts of the supply chain. Having retired people training younger people on how best to work is a way of retaining knowledge along the generations (Zhong et al., 2017).

Conclusively, the terms of USMCA differs a little with those of NAFTA on the following grounds: dispute mechanism; access to Canadian market; country of origin; sunset clause and currency exchange rates. On the other hand, the three countries should explore new immigrants; mix the young generation with the retired workers and increase the use of technology to achieve competency.



















The environment and the social settings in which an organization operates influence its success. Over the years, business organizations have measured their sustainability based on capital returns. However, John Elkingston, by the mid-1990s, devised a new system of measuring business sustainability, the Triple Bottom Line (TBL). TBL considers the social existence of a business, the financial gains and environmental factors in making business sustainability measurements. Controversy exists on the use of TBL in measuring human and environmental traits. Economists have been instrumental in trying to define and apply TBL in measuring business sustainability. This paper aims at defining TBL, its users, what the model is used to do, its importance, and how it measures business sustainability. The paper will further analyze the practical usage of TBL in Business and Management.

The triple bottom line presents a firm's ultimate goal to comprise the creation of ecological, social and economic value (Elkington, 2001).TBL is therefore defined as an accounting model that combines social, environmental and financial dimensions of performance in determining business sustainability (Slaper, & Hall, 2011). TBL is used by any business entity, nonprofit organizations or government organizations. In business entities, TBL is used to reduce the cost of production. Slaper and Hall (2011) report that a business that cares about the environment selects the best packaging method hence cutting on the cost of waste collection. On nonprofit organizations, TBL is used to influence companies to channel funds and support organizations that embrace TBL in their day to day activities. On governmental organizations, TBL is used as a monitoring tool in accessing the effects of government policy on society (Slaper, & Hall, 2011).

TBL is essential because it draws efforts from both social and environmental dimensions, and incorporating profitability in determining how a business entity is performing (Wicks, Keevil, & Parmar, 2012). The approach is vital because it measures a firm's performance concerning the environment and the community as important as financial performance. This measure enhances sustainability by showing whether the society in which the organization operates supports its activities, hence its sustainability. According to Slaper, & Hall (2011), TBL does measurements on sustainability by integrating profitability, environmental and social factors at hand. For example sustainability measure will be low for a pig business operating in a society that objects eating of pork. Slaper, & Hall (2011) reports that the size of the entity, the geographical location, and data available may differ from one place to another hence different approaches in applying TBA.

The Environmental dimension of TBA can be used in business organizations and government to foster sustainable economic development that is environmentally friendly. Examples include checking on air and water quality, consumption of energy and toxic waste material. The economic dimension of TBL can be used to maximize the profitability of a business entity by fostering better and cheaper ways of conducting business. For example by measuring the number of firms in each sector to avoiding unhealthy competition that may lead to the collapse of a business entity. Lastly, on the societal dimension, TBL can be used by investors and project managers in determining community preference about the type of business or organization to be established and styles of management. For example, setting a church in a Muslim dominated society would be detrimental. Consequently, choosing a female manager in a patriarchal society would lead to the collapse of the business.

Conclusively, positive environmental and societal feedback is as valuable as profits.  Any person would love to work in an organization that is supported by society, is environmentally friendly and is not prone to collapse any moment a controversy exists within the environment and society the business operates. TBL enables the existence of such an entity by allowing an organization to conserve the environment and form a strong link with the community in which it operates. I would recommend the government to pass laws that direct organizations to adopt TBL theory in establishing their entities. In my opinion, I would offer my support to businesses that have made an effort in integrating TBL in their establishment and measurement of their sustainability.